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  Most popular articles (Since March 23, 2017)

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The relationship between nutrition and infectious diseases: A review
Sedigheh Farhadi, Roman S Ovchinnikov
July-September 2018, 2(3):168-172
Nutrition and infectious diseases are related to each other in some aspects. First, nutrition affects the development of human body immune system. Moreover, nutrition can influence emerge of infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal infections), food poisoning, intestinal diseases, and systemic infectious diseases. In this review, the mentioned aspects of the relationship between nutrition and infections are discussed. Furthermore, the relationship between malnutrition and infectious diseases, nutrition in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and relationship between overeating and infection are reviewed. Overall, some factors can weaken the body's ability to fight infection and cause malnutrition. The factors include anorexia, traditional behaviors, reduction of intestinal absorption, metabolic damage, disorder metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, reduction of vitamins, iron, zinc, and copper. In the case of the relationship between malnutrition and infection, a large number of studies have illustrated a bidirectional interaction of malnutrition and infection. In this aspect, to treat serious acute malnutrition and limit the rate of death, some preventive studies applied antibiotics, probiotic bacteria, and prebiotic foods. In the future, studies may be conducted on intestinal or systematic immunomodulation.
  88,440 5,056 24
Geographical distribution of cystic fibrosis; The past 70 years of data analyzis
Seyed Bashir Mirtajani, Poopak Farnia, Maryam Hassanzad, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
October-December 2017, 1(2):105-112
Cystic fibrosis (CF) has been generally well defined throughout the world although its prevalence is very difficult to ascertain for a number of reasons, including the fact that the medical/scientific literature and patient registries vary in quality in different countries. In the present review literature (1938–2017), we found out the higher frequency of registered CF patients in the European Union. This could be due to strong clinical awareness and greater health facilities. In contrast, we found a very irregular report from Asian and African countries. In these countries, the national CF registration system is mostly lacking or it is individualized-based research. In this situation, the estimation of various risk factors such as ethnicity and/or races is remained to be resolved. Overall, this review outlines the urgent need for revitalization of national and global CF registration, worldwide.
  62,671 3,830 25
Is ivermectin–Azithromycin combination the next step for COVID-19?
Hayder Mutter Al-Kuraishy, Nawar Raad Hussien, Marwa Salih Al-Naimi, Ali Kadhem Al-Buhadily, Ali Ismail Al-Gareeb, Claire Lungnier
August 2020, 4(5):101-103
Different experimental and approved drugs were tested for coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19) to detect effective one that attenuates or prevents the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Repurposing of old approved drugs with the potential arrhythmogenic effect such as chloroquine in COVID-19 may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death due to torsadogenic potential. The Food and Drug Administration approved the drugs, such as ivermectin, which can kill SARS-CoV-2 within 48 h. Azithromycin augments the antiviral activity of chloroquine in COVID-19 with a high risk of morbidity and mortality through torsadogenic potential. There were no obvious interactions between ivermectin and azithromycin and without risk of torsadogenic effect despite the prolongation of QT by azithromycin. Therefore, azithromycin–ivermectin is regarded as an effectual combo for COVID-19 in elderly patients with underlying cardiac abnormalities.
  59,903 755 -
A study of the diurnal height changes among sample of adults aged 30 years and above in Ghana
Frederick Vuvor, Obed Harrison
October-December 2017, 1(2):113-119
Background: The diurnal variations in stature significantly affect the reliability of height data. Diurnal variation in stature affects the reliability of any data that involves height measurement without a correction factor at different times of the day. The aim of this study was to determine the diurnal height loss of adults aged ≥30 years in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Methods: A total of 90 individuals were randomly sampled. Weight and height measurements were taken twice a day between 5.30–7.30 am and 5–7 pm. The WHO Stepwise questionnaires were used to gather all information on subjects. Results: The maximum height loss between 7 am and 7 pm from the study was 2.7 cm whereas mean was 1.61 cm. There was a greater mean height loss in males (1.63 cm) than in females (1.59 cm), greater mean body mass index (BMI) difference between morning and evening BMI was observed for females (1.21 kg/m2) than in males (1.02 kg/m2). There was a significant association between height loss and occupational activities (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The height of the individuals significantly reduced from 7 am to 7 pm and increased from 7 pm to 7 am. The major factor that contributes to diurnal height variations is the level of occupational activity performed in a day. No significant relationships were established between age, sex, total caloric intake, and diurnal height loss.
  21,420 663 -
Establishing reference ranges and normal values for coagulation screening in healthy Indian male volunteers enrolled for a longitudinal study
Rehan Ahmed, Prosenjit Ganguli, Natwar Singh, Surinderpal Singh, Umesh Das Gupta, Yogesh K Jaiswal, Zahid Asharaf, Prasanna Reddy, Velu Nair
January-March 2019, 3(1):22-29
Background: The study was designed for establishing reference ranges and normal values for coagulation screening in healthy Indian male volunteers. At present, there are no standard parameters established for coagulation screening assays of Indian population. The parameters used as a reference in the coagulation assays are of Western origin. We know that ethnicity of the western population is different from the Indian population which may result in a different set of reference ranges of the coagulation assay. It is necessary to determine the mean normal values for the coagulation assay, namely prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen in an Indian population. The aim of the study was to establish the reference ranges of coagulation assays for all future experiments on the cohort. Methods: Six hundred healthy male volunteers were sampled and underwent coagulation testing at a seven hundred-bedded hospital at Jammu (Jammu). Fresh normal pool plasma (FNPP) was prepared concurrently and investigated (n = 50 volunteers). In the study population, the arithmetic means of the coagulation assay were as follows: PT: 13.00 s, APTT: 34 s, TT: 17.3 s, and fibrinogen: 298 mg/dl (19 s), and in the FNPP, it was 12.8 s, 33.2 s, 17 s, and 298 mg/dl (19 s), respectively. Results: The reference range of coagulation screening in our study was established as the following values: PT: 10.7–15.3 s, APTT: 26.8–41.2 s, TT: 12.8–21.7 s, and fibrinogen: 223–372 mg/dl. This study has set a reference range of normal values for coagulation assay screening in longitudinal studies where these tests were repeated on the same set of individuals at six-month interval for the subsequent 3 years. Conclusion: We see no effect of age on Coagulation cascade in our study. Overall mean values resembled with various age groups in coagulation cascade. These parameters of Coagulation cascade set a standard for high altitude studies where these tests are in normal procedure.
  18,415 842 -
Thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortion
Preeti Gahlawat, Aditi Singh, Smiti Nanda, Simmi Kharb
July-September 2017, 1(1):81-84
Background: Pregnancy is associated with significant but reversible changes in thyroid function. Abnormal thyroid hormone levels could give rise to increased malplacentation increase to malplacentation that underlies the association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and adverse obstetric outcomes such as fetal brain damage, preterm births, and fetal death. Aim: The present study was planned to predict the risk of abortion in pregnancy by studying the relation between thyroid profile and rate of abortion. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in 100 pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy of 6–12 weeks of gestation in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak. The patients were divided into three groups, namely, Group 1 (n = 30, control group) included normal pregnant women with no history of abortion; Group 2 (n = 35) included pregnant females with previous history of abortion; and Group 3 (n = 35) comprised pregnant women coming with chief complaint of bleeding per vaginum. A volume of 5 mL blood sample was taken and serum was separated using centrifugation. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were estimated by chemiluminiscence. Results: T3, T4 and levels were comparable in all the three groups and the difference was not statistically significant. TSH levels were found to be negatively correlated with T3 and T4 values in the three groups. Only, 13% of the patients had spontaneous abortion. Nearly 6.66% of the patients in Group 1, 11.42% in Group 2 and 19.99% of patients in Group 3 ended up in abortion. TSH was found to be strongly associated with abortion in all the three groups (P ≤ 0.001). TSH levels were significantly higher in the first trimester in women who had an abortion than pregnant women who had a successful continuation of pregnancy. Conclusions: TSH was strongly associated with abortion in the first trimester in all the three groups.
  16,023 748 5
Tamoxifen from chemotherapy to antiviral drug: Possible activity against COVID-19
Huda Ali Salman Almosawey, Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani, Raghdah Maytham Hameed, Younus Jasim Abdullah, Mohanad Kadhim Mirdan Al-Ibraheemi, Atyaf Ali Al-Asadi
April-June 2020, 4(2):108-116
Tamoxifen (TAM) is the oldest and the most-prescribed selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). It is a member of the triphenylethylene group. TAM has been used to treat breast cancer that spreads to other parts of the human body; it is also utilized to decreasing the chances of breast cancer developing in high-risk patients. Recently, some studies focused on the potential antimicrobial action of TAM. Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-sense RNA nucleic acid viruses that have club-like spikes, characterized by a distinctive replication strategy; they are round and sometimes pleomorphic in shape. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is regarding the new genera of coronaviredia that appeared for the first time in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019. Due to the continuous spread of the novel COVID-19 with the exponential rise in death numbers, new therapeutic development is urgent; in general, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines for 2019-nCoV. Hence, this review will discuss the most recent information about the antiviral action of TAM against COVID-19 infection by trying to give a deep understanding of major properties, mechanisms of action, immune system responses, and antimicrobial efficiency of TAM that is regarding the promising way to treat COVID-19 novel infection. The current review may serve as an impetus for researchers working in the field of medical microbiology, vaccination, and antiviral drug design. The review also rationally reports and critically analyzes the available knowledge by focusing and mentioning future steps and strategies trying to find appropriate solutions regarding challenges in COVID-19 management by TAM utilization.
  15,397 636 -
Exploring potential of phage therapy for tuberculosis using model organism
Vijay Singh Gondil, Sanjay Chhibber
January-March 2018, 2(1):9-15
Antibiotics, one of the miracle discoveries of the 20th century after world war revolutionized the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Antibiotics led to an increase in the quality of health-care system but with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains compromised their very potential. The WHO calls bacterial resistance as one of the major threats to global health, food security, and development today. Antibiotic resistance poses a need of alternative therapy to conventional antibiotics. As proved in preantibiotic era phage therapy is effective against a number of successful pathogens and can be used as an alternative strategy to restrain stern infections such as antibiotic resistance tuberculosis (TB). In the present paper, effectiveness of phage therapy and use of model organisms for developing treatment strategy for antibiotic-resistant TB is discussed so as to explore new possibilities in battle against antibiotic resistance.
  13,536 1,433 10
Inhalational anesthetics agents: The pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics, and their effects on human body
Negin Kassiri, Seyed Hossein Ardehali, Farzad Rashidi, Seyed MohammadReza Hashemian
July-September 2018, 2(3):173-177
In this review article, inhalational anesthetics agents and their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics and effects on the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems are discussed. There is a wide spectrum of inhalational anesthetic agents with different characteristics. As some examples, in this study, recovery times of sevoflurane and halothane are reviewed. Overall, gas drugs have extensive usage in Intensive Care Unit. For example, a combination of oxygen and helium may be utilized in patients with obstructive airway disorders, endotracheal tubes, acute lung damage, diphtheria, respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, bronchiolitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Xenon would be effective in reducing memories after traumatic events.
  12,574 1,240 1
Useful approaches for reducing aflatoxin M1 content in milk and dairy products
Fatemeh Naeimipour, Jafar Aghajani, Saba Amiri Kojuri, Saman Ayoubi
April-June 2018, 2(2):94-99
The quality and safety of food are of major importance. Using contaminated animals' milk and meat may result in human disease. Among microorganisms, fungal toxins, especially aflatoxin B-1 (AFB1), are of special importance. Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM-1) is a metabolite that is produced by conversion and hydroxylation of AFB-1. Both toxins can cause acute and chronic mycotoxicosis mainly through ingestion of contaminated milk. Hence, it is critical to control and decrease these microorganisms. Despite cost-effective efforts, preventing foods contamination due to aflatoxins (AFs) is not only an expensive but also a difficult task. The best agricultural monitoring during preharvest and postharvest stages cannot eliminate the AFs, especially AFM-1 from milk and dairy products because of the high resistance of these toxins. There have been numerous studies investigating the methods of AF detoxification or reduction from infected milk. By focusing on advantages and disadvantages of preventative procedures using probiotics, antibodies, chemisorbents and even additives, one can choose one or several procedures to eliminate or reduce AFM-1 in milk and its byproducts efficiently.
  11,927 1,178 6
Antibacterial potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) against uropathogens producing beta-lactamase enzymes: A clue to future antibacterial agent?
Sameer Singh Faujdar, Dakshina Bisht, Amisha Sharma
July-September 2020, 4(3):232-238
Background: Emergence of drug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli due to production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL), and AmpC beta-lactamase is very common nowadays; therefore, we are left with less choice for antibiotics that is why we are in the need for the new alternatives. Hence, the current study was done to demonstrate antibacterial properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves against ESBL, MBL, and AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative uropathogens. Methods: Gram-negative uropathogens (221) were isolated and further tested for beta-lactamase (ESBL, MBL, and AmpC) production. Neem (A. indica) was tested for its antibacterial activity against all uropathogens. Results: Ethanolic extract of neem leaves showed good antibacterial activity against all isolates. Maximum zone of inhibitions and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were revealed by Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusion: Extract of neem leaves at different concentrations showed potential antibacterial activity against both beta-lactamase-producing and nonproducing Gram-negative bacilli.
  12,612 421 5
Impact of geographical information system on public health sciences
Jafar Aghajani, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
October-December 2017, 1(2):94-100
In this brief review, the geographic information systems (GISs) and its beneficial influence in the field of health were discussed and highlighted. Basically, GIS is a computerized system that can significantly add to assess and monitor the effects of environmental factors (namely, population, air pollution, location, climatic changes) on public health problems. The main benefits of GIS in health services are mapping and/or visualizing of disease distribution, which will ultimately improves our understanding of disease diversities and their spatial patterns. Therefore, GIS technology is capable of providing the intra- and inter-logical connection between health, social services, and natural environment.
  11,699 1,181 6
Probiotics: The marvelous factor and health benefits
S Vijayaram, S Kannan
January-March 2018, 2(1):1-8
The aim of this study is well stated to address in recent advances on probiotics in the past 50 years. Probiotics are the living cell organisms. It is a presence in human and animal gut. The probiotic organisms are natural antibiotics in the human-animal gut. This reviews the main role mechanisms of action in probiotics such as probiotics are antibiotics, probiotics in antibacterial activity, probiotic action in fish gut bacteria, dietary supplements of probiotics, gastrointestinal microbiota of fishes, microbial community of the gastrointestinal tract of fish, bioactive compounds from probiotic bacteria, probiotic uses in cancer therapeutic applications, and applications of probiotics. The most common probiotics are used in many ways such as boosting the immune system, inhibition of pathogenic organism, prevention of cancer, reduction of inflammatory bowel disease, reducing cholesterol level, and synthesis of Vitamin A. Nowadays, food products are mainly involved in chemical preservatives. These preservative agents are causing the disease to affect the human health. The probiotic food products are used to the development of human-animal health.
  10,608 1,320 7
Chronic myeloid leukemia and ferritin levels
Kumar Saurabh, Veena Singh Ghalaut, Jyoti Bala
October-December 2017, 1(2):120-123
Background: Ferritin is a positive acute-phase reactant, exhibiting increased levels in blood during the acute-phase response. High plasma ferritin levels have been reported for various types of cancers, irrespective of the amount of total body iron. Hence, this study was designed to assess the status of ferritin levels in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients both before and after chemotherapy and to compare them with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Thirty patients of CML after confirmed diagnosis were taken up for the study. CML patients were treated by imatinib therapy. Serum ferritin was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in thirty newly diagnosed CML patients and in thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The test was repeated at first complete remission or at 3 months (whichever is earlier) in CML patients. Patients and controls were categorized into three groups as follows: (1) Group I: Control group –age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (2) Group II: CML patients at the time of diagnosis (before imatinib therapy) (3) Group III: CML patients at first complete remission or at 3 months of imatinib therapy (whichever is earlier). Results: The ferritin levels were significantly increased in Group II and Group III (387.68 ± 221.61 ng/mL and 295.43 ± 169.17 ng/mL, respectively) as compared to controls (73.27 ± 60.82 ng/mL) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). The ferritin levels were decreased in Group III as compared to Group II, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.075). Conclusion: Our study revealed that serum ferritin could be a useful marker in determining disease progression or monitor the effectiveness of treatment in leukemic patients.
  11,195 419 -
Epidemiology of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in Northern India
Ankur Kumar, Amresh Kumar Singh, Vandana Upadhyay, Jayesh Pandey
April-June 2018, 2(2):112-121
India is the world's second most populous country, accounting for a quarter of the world's annual incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Every year around 2 million people develop TB in India and 300,000 die due to the TB. The emergence of drug-resistant-TB (DR-TB) has become a major public health concern in India. This situation is worsened by the appearance of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We sought to determine the characteristics and relative frequency of transmission of MDR-TB in North India and their association with the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TB-patients and to mitigate the impeding drug-resistant TB epidemic in the country; it will help to established TB surveillance system effectively in the country. Diagnosis of MDR-TB prompts an appropriate treatment for patients with presumptive MDR-TB or rifampicin resistance in TB patients who have failed treatment with first-line drugs. If left undiagnosed or poorly treated, MDR-TB patients suffer for months to years before succumbing to the disease; hence, transmission of MDR-TB continues MDR-TB patients were found to be significantly higher in previously treated patients in comparison to newly diagnosed patients. The emerging drug susceptibility testing patterns and enlisting the help of an expert in DR-TB should be sought sooner rather than later through more than 100 established DR-TB centers across the country. To control the primary transmission of MDR-TB in Northern India, we recommend that improving the social support, living standards, and medical security of each patient should become a priority.
  10,141 942 1
Correlation study between urinary tract bacterial infection and some acute inflammatory responses
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani, Ghusin alban Adnan Auda, Aalae Salman Ayit
October-December 2019, 3(4):236-239
Background: There is no population in the world clear from urinary tract infection (UTI), especially among women. Urinary tract disease is a general term alluding to the bacterial infection anyplace in the urinary tract. It is commonly acknowledged that contamination of the upper urinary tract puts the patient in danger for kidney damage. The aim of the study was to identify the type of bacteria that cause UTI beside elevates the correlation between UTI and some inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hemoglobin for the UTI among patients in various sex and age groups. Methods: The study was carried in Baghdad Teaching Hospital during July 7, 2017–October 15, 2017. A sum of 45 UTI patients and 20 control group was collected. Results: The study showed that UTI increased in female than in male with 62.2% and 37.8%, respectively, and high risk at age 30–49 years with 42.2%. The microorganisms identified in this study were Escherichia coli (42.2%), followed by Enterobacter (8.9%), Pseudomonas and Klebsiella (6.7% for each), Proteus spp and Serratia spp (4.4% for each), and mixed culture (E. coli + Proteus and E. coli + Pseudomonas with 2.2% for each one). Conclusion: This study showed highly significant correlation between CRP and bacterial isolation.
  10,486 367 9
Bioinformatics tools for genomic and evolutionary analysis of infectious agents
Vivek Dhar Dwivedi, Shiv Bharadwaj, Partha Sarathi Mohanty, Umesh Datta Gupta
July-September 2018, 2(3):163-167
Genome sequence analysis of infectious agents (IAs) reveals many secrets about their life processes and evolutionary history. Increasing the huge amount of genomic sequence data of various IAs in different biological sequence databases, which are being produced through different sequencing projects, is continuously motivating the genome researchers to unlock the mysteries related to the life of IAs. Furthermore, that information may be helpful for treating the serious illness problem caused by IAs. However, all the genome analysis work requires a good knowledge of bioinformatics tools that may be useful for genome researchers to extract the meaningful and accurate information from the genome sequence data of IAs. In this article, the most recent bioinformatics tools for the genomic and evolutionary analysis of infectious agents have been discussed and compared in detail which will help the genome researchers to select the most appropriate tool for genomic and evolutionary analysis of IAs.
  9,751 726 -
Dermatophytosis a worldwide contiguous fungal infection: Growing challenge and few solutions
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani
April-June 2020, 4(2):117-122
Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that survive on keratinous materials. There is a broad prevalence of dermatophytes infection among the world. Dermatophytosis is the disease that mainly caused by different species of dermatophytes within the cutaneous layer of the skin. It has contagious properties to spread from person to another and also from the animal to the human. The skin, hair, and nail of all types of mammalian, including human, are under the risk to develop dermatophytosis. A total of 2530 articles have been investigated in PubMed (n = 1525), Medline (n = 705), and Google Scholar (n = 300). From 2530 articles, just 48 studies were included in this review. This study aimed to review available data and current literature as well as information from personal experiments regarding dermatophytes infection to focus on the dermatophytes general features, dermatophytosis, pathogenesis presented by enzymes production, most common factors associated with infection, prevalence, and treatment of dermatophytes infection, and also to yield a clear vision to other researches about this worldwide predominant contiguous fungal disease.
  8,572 1,105 -
Emerging carbapenemase Klebsiella oxytoca with multidrug resistance implicated in urinary tract infection
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani, Raheem Malalah Abadi, Aalae Salman Ayit
April-June 2020, 4(2):148-151
Background: At present, Klebsiella oxytoca is emerging as a crucial persisted bacterial pathogen in urinary tract infection (UTI), which causes true public health problems worldwide. This study aimed to detect the incidence of K. oxytoca in patients severe from UTI with antibiotic sensitivity tests that assist urologist doctors for appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy for this bacterium. Methods: K. oxytoca isolated clinically from urine samples during the period from January 2018 to December 2019 at the Al-Shomally General Hospital, Babil, Iraq, and a private laboratory in Babil city. A total of 430 patients were involved in this study; urine samples were processed at the hospital laboratory during this period; and a diagnosis has been done by the routine bacteriological diagnosis as well as VITEK® 2 system. Results: Of these 430 urine samples, 122 had bacterial growth; two types of Klebsiella species have been isolated in 18 patients (14.75%) of total specimens; K. pneumonia detected in 16 patients (89%); and K. oxytoca in 2 patients (11%) of the total Klebsiella species. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacteria (56; 45.90%). K. oxytoca UTI isolates were sensitive to amikacin, trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin. However, these isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin, cefotazidime, clindamycin, nitrofurantoin, and cefotaxime. Conclusion: The current study showed an increasing burden of UTI caused by K. oxytoca. Multidrug resistance is associated with K. oxytoca implicated in UTI that causes changeable sensitivity to various antimicrobial agents.
  9,289 378 -
Serum levels of interleukin-6, ferritin, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, and count of lymphocytes and neutrophils in COVID-19 patients: Its correlation to the disease severity
Ali Saad Kadhim, Younus Jasim Abdullah
January-March 2021, 5(1):69-73
Background: Since its first emergence in Wuhan city, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is responsible for the pandemic COVID-19, has become a significant health problem all over the world affecting over 2.1 million people globally. Methods: The current study aimed to investigate serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer as well as lymphocytes and neutrophils count in COVID-19 patients, and to clarify the correlation of these parameters with disease severity and progression. For these purposes, (100) patients with COVID-19 (confirmed by polymerase chain reaction) and (20) apparently healthy people (with matched age and sex) were included in the current study and considered as a control group. Results: All study population (patients and control) were subjected to the evaluation of serum levels of IL-6, ferritin, CRP, LDH, D-dimer, as well as lymphocytes and neutrophils, count. COVID-19 patients showed a significant elevation in the levels of all parameters included in this study when compared with healthy controls. We also found that all of IL-6, ferritin, CRP, LDH, D-dimer are significantly associated with the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusion: Lymphopenia and increased neutrophils were also effectively correlated with disease progression. In line with these results, we concluded a proportional correlation between the aforementioned parameters and COVID-19 suggesting the uses of these tests to the diagnosis of critical cases.
  9,073 503 -
Insight to foodborne diseases: Proposed models for infections and intoxications
Rashed Noor
July-September 2019, 3(3):135-139
Disclosure of microbial prevalence in different food items around the globe is very much likely due to the pathogenic microbial propagation, as well as due to lack of sufficient understanding on food poisoning mechanism. A line of microbiological analyses of foods unstitched the promulgation of Escherichia coli and their toxins, Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Listeria spp. While the cases of food poisoning are handled frequently basically with the treatment strategies, the inner mechanism of the food poisoning by microorganisms remains unraveled. In the present review, author attempted to formulate models for the foodborne infections, intoxications, and toxicoinfections. Understanding of these models and pathogenesis would be useful to combat foodborne diseases using the accurate strategies to resolve the complications and to improve the public health as well.
  8,277 591 -
Role of magnesium in preeclampsia
Simmi Kharb, K Goel, J Bhardwaj, S Nanda
July-September 2018, 2(3):178-180
Background: The present study was planned to study the role of Mg in preeclampsia and its correlation with dietary intake of proteins and calories by analyzing serum Mg at 20 weeks, delivery, and cord blood Mg levels. Methods: The study was conducted in 102 pregnant women aged 17–36 years attending the outpatient department (OPD) before 20 weeks of gestation. The study samples were drawn twice: once before 20 weeks during visit in the OPD and second within 1 h of childbirth. Serum was analyzed for Mg levels using spectrophotometric method. Furthermore, thyroid-stimulating hormone and glucose challenge test were done as per the standard methods. Results: In normal pregnant women, the mean serum Mg level at <20 weeks of gestation was 2.03 ± 0.34 mg/dl, at term was 1.93 ± 0.41 mg/dl, and in cord blood was 1.84 ± 0.35 mg/dl. Conclusion: The study data support the hypothesis that Mg deficiency might be the causative factor in the development of preeclampsia.
  7,839 752 3
Recent methods for diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria infections: Relevance in clinical practice
Anand Kumar Maurya, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Surya Kant, Anuradha Sharma, Ravi Shekhar Gadepalli, Ram Awadh Singh Kushwaha
July-September 2017, 1(1):14-18
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are ever more important in recent years for leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clinical appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) complex and NTM is same, but the treatment regimen is always different. NTM is challenging for both diagnostic and therapeutic with reason that it mimic pathological, microbiological, immunological, and radiological findings of TB. Newer molecular diagnostic methods allow for a better identification of NTM infections in patients not responding to antitubercular treatment and falsely categorized as drug-resistant TB. This article will explore the recent methods for the diagnosis and identification of NTM infections in clinical practice. In the future, the molecular-based diagnosis will significantly reduce the turnaround time of the diagnosis and thereby improving patient outcome.
  7,482 1,083 3
Outdoor air pollution affects tuberculosis development based on geographical information system modeling
Esmaeil Rajaei, Maryam Hadadi, Majid Madadi, Jafar Aghajani, Mohanad Mohsin Ahmad, Poopak Farnia, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
January-March 2018, 2(1):39-45
Background : Daily intake of air is 30 Ib as compared with 2-Ib of food and 4½ of water. Thereby, breathing-contaminated air is as harmful as drinking or eating contaminated water or food, respectively. Recent research has highlighted the extent of outdoor air pollution in large cities and warranted high-quality studies to clarify the magnitude of the problem. Here, we evaluated the possible association between tuberculosis (TB) development and exposure to outdoor air pollution in a metropolitan city of Tehran. Methods: Extraction and analysis of relevant data. Investigation performed on TB patients (n = 1167) that were residing in Tehran for the past 10 years. The average concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5μm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10.0 (PM10) was measured from Tehran Air Quality Control Corporation (TAQCC). Patient and ecological informations were analyzed using geographical information system. Results: Based on TAQCC, Tehran had an average of 180–250 polluted days per year for the last 10 years. The high incidence of pulmonary TB (18 to 31/100,000) was detected in populations which were exposed to high concentration of CO (2.7 to 5.2 parts per million, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.10 to 1.90) and PM2.5(35 to 42μg/m3; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.80). The level of SO2,NO, and PM10was also high but not significantly related to TB (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The long-term exposure to PM2.5 and CO was positively associated with TB development.
  6,943 616 7
The immunopathology of tuberculosis, the mode of action of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, of the tuberculin and of the immunotherapy
Roland Maes
April-June 2019, 3(2):67-76
The outer surface of the cell membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is made of carbohydrates and lipids that do not readily induce the formation of antibodies by the invaded host. The absence of antibodies against the outer cell membrane of wild strains explains the long persistence of the pathogen in the invaded host. Its immunopathology sequence proceeds in four complex steps, some generating an immunodeficiency. TB presents a pronounced phenotypic variation, with the result that strains thriving in different parts of the world differ widely immunologically. The bacterium is ubiquitous, and the claim that the infection affects a quarter of the human population is an understatement. The Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination is a primo-infection that may generate an immunodepression and favor the infection of immunodepressed hosts. The BCG vaccine elicits a vigorous cellular immune response that prevents proliferation. This explains why BCG does not protect against infection but prevents dissemination from the primary foci to other parts of the body. The mycobacterium Mycobacterium vaccae fails to elicit a cellular immune response at a par with that generated by BCG. However, it is far superior to BCG at the humoral immunity level. The boosting of the synthesis of nitric oxide is possible by food supplements, as an adjuvant to immunotherapy.
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