Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal (BBRJ)

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 295--301

Phytochemical and pharmacological profile review of Bryophyllum pinnatum


P Selvakumar 
 Department of Chemistry, Dhaanish Ahmed Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
P Selvakumar
Department of Chemistry, Dhaanish Ahmed Institute of Technology, Coimbatore - 641 105, Tamil Nadu
India

Abstract

Herbs are plants grown for their medicinal, flavoring, or aromatic properties. Herbal treatments are safe and efficient for treating a wide range of ailments. Western medicine, or allopathy, is primarily reliant on medicinal plants for some of its constituents. Herbal plants are the traditional and widely used type of medication, according to research. Until the last century, most remedies were made by hand, either from plants or animals. Synthetic pharmaceuticals are becoming increasingly popular, whereas natural drugs are showing promise in treating various disorders. A perennial plant thrives in India's wet and hot regions, like Bengal. It has 25 genera and 450 species. Succulent perennials have hollow stems, four-angled leaves, and numerous branches. The leaves are 10–20 cm elongated and decussate. A long petiole surrounds the three- to seven-foliate top leaf. They are dark green and scalloped with red ribbons. 30-35 cm long, 2–4 cm petioles, 6–8 X 3-5.5 cm blades, with latent buds that can develop into healthy plantlets with an acute tip. Rooting vegetative buds are on the leaves. This aromatic plant has been used for groups to heal many ailments. These studies look at the plant's acute toxicity, antiulcer effectiveness, and pharmacognostic properties. The plant's macrostructure varied. Microscopic examination discovered lignified walls in the root and stem bark. Phytochemical examination can identify plant metabolites. Leaves, stems, and roots had more physiologically lively constituents than the other three plant sections. Although more research is required to identify the molecules and their potential health effects, these substances must be extracted and evaluated for future application. This study's findings support Bryophyllum pinnatum medicinal potentials. B. pinnatum roots, stems, and leaves contain bioactive compounds worth investigating. This could help B. pinnatum-based pharmaceuticals.



How to cite this article:
Selvakumar P. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile review of Bryophyllum pinnatum.Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2022;6:295-301


How to cite this URL:
Selvakumar P. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile review of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Biomed Biotechnol Res J [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 31 ];6:295-301
Available from: https://www.bmbtrj.org/text.asp?2022/6/3/295/356141


Full Text



 Introduction



Herbs are plantations that lack the wood tissue of trees or shrubs. Herbs are plants grown for their medicinal, flavoring, or aromatic properties. Herbal treatments are safe and efficient for treating a wide range of ailments. Western medicine, or allopathy, is primarily reliant on medicinal plants for some of its constituents.[1] Herbal plants are the traditional and widely used type of medication, according to research.[2] Until the last century, most remedies were made by hand, either from plants or animals. Synthetic pharmaceuticals are becoming increasingly popular, whereas natural drugs are showing promise in treating various disorders. It used to refer to organic cures. Herbalists believe that removing a chemical from an herb rather than using whole plant loses the active components responsible for the herb's medicinal properties.[3] Herbs can warm the body, speed metabolism, cleanse the blood, improve surface circulation, improve waste disposal, reduce inflammation, and relax and soothe irritation. They can be used topically or taken internally as syrups, infusions, or capsules. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “it is a combination of skills, information and practises used to improve quality of life and prevent, detect, treat, or cure physical and mental diseases” WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014–2023.[4],[5],[6]

 Vernacular Name



Sanskrit: Parnabeeja, AsthibhakshaEnglish: Air plantHindi: Zakhmhaiyat, PathharchoorKannada: Kadu basale, GandukalingaTamil: Malaikalli, RanakalliTelugu: RanapalaMarathi: GayamariBengali: Pathar kuchi, KoppathaMalayalam: Elamarunga.

 Taxonomical Classification



Kingdom: Plantae – plantsSubkingdom: Tracheobionta – vascular plantsDivision: Spermatophyta – seed plantsSubdivision: Magnoliophyta – flowering plantsClass: Magnoliopsida – dicotyledonsSubclass: RosidaeOrder: RosalesFamily: Crassulaceae – stonecropGenus: BryophyllumSpecies: Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken.

 Historical Background of Herbal Plants



Other primates are aware of and employ plant therapeutic properties. Anthropogenic, immunostimulant, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, digestive aids, analgesic, and reproductive regulators have been reported in several ape and monkey species. While archaeological evidence shows that humans employed medicinal herbs continuously in primordial times. Various ancient cultures used botanical chemicals for psychological and physiological objectives.[7],[8],[9] As proven by their use in all medical systems, including Ayurveda, which originated in India, Western Medicine, which originated in Mesopotamia, Chinese Medicine, which developed in China, Unani Medicine, which emerged in Greece, and others.[10] We learned about plants and their medical characteristics through oral tradition, papyrus, printing, manuscripts, and finally computer storage. Herbs have long been used to promote human health. Ancient burials often contain herbal remnants.[11] Eight medicinal plants were unearthed in a 60,000-year-old burial in Iraq, including Ephedra sinica, Stapf. Botanicals have been employed since the dawn of time. Herbs were used to treat the sick.

They were supposed to contain souls as well as medicinal capabilities. Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher, believed plants had Psyche. For example, Juglans regia Linn. looked like brain tissue and was commonly employed as a brain tonic. The Egyptian “Ebers papyrus” dated 1500 BC. is the oldest known medical text. In it, you will find 700 drugs and 800 pharmaceutical formulas, as well as instructions for making poultices and ointments.[12] It is approximately 20 m. Not every medicine suggested worked well, but several have been used for centuries, such as garlic, castor, myrrh, cannabis, and opium. Charka began to study the Vedas around 700 BC. The Ayurvedic literature Charka Samhita describes over 350 medicinal plants. Indians knew of Chalmugra's antileprotic, tonic, and soothing effects, as well as Amla and Ashwagandha. Vedic medicine dates back to 1000 BC.[13],[14],[15]

 Bryophyllum pinnatum



A perennial plant thrives in India's wet and hot regions, like Bengal. It has 25 genera and 450 species. Succulent perennials have hollow stems, four-angled leaves, and numerous branches.

The leaves are 10–20 cm long and decussate.[11] A long petiole surrounds the three-to seven-foliate top leaf. They are dark green and scalloped with red ribbons. 30-35 cm long, 2–4 cm petioles, 6–8 X 3-5.5 cm blades, with latent buds that can develop into healthy plantlets with an acute tip. Rooting vegetative buds are on the leaves.[16] The terminal paniculate is 10–40 cm long. Pendulous bell-shaped flowers blanket the ground. The calyx tube is 2–4 cm long, with oval-shaped nectar scales, oblong stamens, and follicles in the petals and calyx. The four-septate fruit-pod contains numerous smooth, ellipsoid seeds. From November to March, the plant is at its most productive. This has a hot, astringent, acidic, and sweet aftertaste.[17]

 Microscopy



The tiny character displays a skinny sheet is existing on abaxial side and curved surface on the adaxial side. It has a shrill and adaxial epidermal film is of slight, less protuberant compartments. The stranded tissue of midrib is parenchymatous. The cells are round, pointed, and compressedThe vascular strand is solitary, minor, and semicircular in form. It contains dense parallel orchestra of xylem and comprehensive band of phloemXylem component is tapered, pointed, tinny wall. The vascular packs are in upright and parallel plane. The lamina is smooth; the mesophyll is discriminated into palisade and squishy parenchyma. The stomata are anisocytic type, which are established in rich formThe longitudinal segment of greeneries shows occurrence of coiled vessels. The trichomes are lacking on abaxial cross and adaxial cross.

 Ethnopharmacology



The plant can also treat leg edema. This powdered leaf is used to treat wounds. This herb is used in southern Nigeria to help a baby's placenta fall out. This can help children's illnesses. Consider the following: Herbs are widely used to treat high blood pressure and rheumatoid arthritis. B. pinnatum leaves and bark are used to cure diarrhea, vomiting, stomach ulcers, and insect stings. Leaf juice is also used to treat ear infections, colds, palpitations, chickenpox, and asthma. This herb can also treat edema.[18] This plant is frequently used for its liver and vascular health benefits. Bryophyllum is also a muscle relaxant and analgesic. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties help it fight inflammation.[19]

 Ethnomedical Uses of Bryophyllum pinnatum in Different Countries



Brazil has a high prevalence of inflammatory diseases and antileishmanial medicationsSouth West Nigeria offers treatment for ear, chest, and digestive system ailments. In the Philippines, it is used as a bitter tonic, astringent, inflammation, wound healing, and carminative for a variety of ailments, including diarrhea and dysentery, vomiting, and bruises. Poultice or powder, they are used to treat ulcers, infection, rheumatism, and inflammation. The fresh juice of the leaf is used to treat smallpox, otitis, a cold, asthma, and palpitation[20]Analgesic, diarrhea-stimulating and other digestive problems, as well as acute or chronic bronchitis (asthma) and other respiratory ailments can be treated with this productThis herb has been used in India for the treatment of cuts, scrapes, burns, and bug bites to eliminate kidney stonesPeople in West Africa use the fleshy leaves to treat a variety of ailments, including high blood pressure, diabetes, rheumatism, joint pain, headaches, and muscle aches. In addition, the leaves are used to treat inguinal lymphadenitis and ear infections[21]

Treats a wide range of ailments in MalagasyIn Europe, this substance is only used in anthroposophic medicineIn Germany, it is used as a tocolytic to prevent preterm birthBroken bones and injuries should be treated in EcuadorThis Central American country treats skin disorders, aches, diarrhea, and discomfortFor inflammation, menstrual discomfort, conjunctivitis, and migraines, Mexico is a great choice. It also works well for a variety of other ailments such as pain, birthing discomfort, cough, pain, colds, fever, and headache.[22],[23],[24]

 Phytochemical Review



Flavonoids, coumarins, saponin sterols, bufadienolides, and anthocyanins were found in plant extracts from the leaves of B. pinnatum. The green callus and the juice of fresh leaves included malic acid, quinines, tocopherol, and lectins, as well as other antioxidantsClassifying the various flavonoids found in nature has been made possible by recognizing flavonoids, flavanones, and isoflavonoids like flavans and anthocyanidines like aurones and chalcones[25]The cytotoxic properties of bufadienolide–bryophyllin B and bersaldegenin–1,3,5-orthoacetate were identifiedBryophyllin A and Bryophyllin C, two insecticidal bufadienolides, were isolated and identified from a methanolic extract of Bryophyllum pinnata leaves[26]To identify flavonoids from the B. pinnatum plant in Nigeria, scientists used the following methods: spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and spectroscopyPotassium malate, ascorbic acid, malic acid, and citric acid have all been isolated from B. pinnatum leavesThe dichloromethane/methanol extract and all fractions contained a 3-sitosterol glycoside, except for the aqueous residueThe chemical composition, vitamins, and minerals of B. pinnatum were studied. There were alkaloids (ranging from 1.23% to 1.45% by weight), flavonoids (ranging from 1.49% to 1.85% by weight), saponins (ranging from 1.4 to 1.71 mg/100mg of protein), phenols (ranging from 0.6% to 0.7% by weight), and tannins (ranging from 0.06% to 0.7% by weight) (ranging from 0.04% to 0.05% by weight)[12]The mixture also contained bryophynol and two phenanthrene derivatives. One more hydrolyzed product was 180-Olcananc, y-taraxasterol, and the B-arnyrin acetate, together with an amyrin combination and its acetate.[27] Traditional use of Bryophyllum pinnatum given bellow [Table 1].{Table 1}

 Review of Bryophyllum pinnatum Biological Activity



Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

In rats, kalanchoe pinnatum leaves and flowers have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities against acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, according to the results of this study.[28] The cyclooxygenase enzyme was inhibited by intramuscular injection of kalanchoe pinnatum flavonoids (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) reducing the potency of tissue necrosis factor by 164.8 and 9.4 mg/kg. A novel steroidal compound helped reduce inflammation in aqueous extract when tested on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. This plant's watery extract showed 75.72% protection against acetic acid-induced writhing in a mouse test.[29]

Anticonvulsant activity

Ethanolic extract of B. pinnatum leaf was tested for anticonvulsant properties in mice utilizing the maximum electro-shock and pentylenettrazole seizure models. A dose-dependent technique was used to increase the duration of tonic extension and recovery in maximal electroshock-induced seizure study.[30] The length of hind limb tonic extension and recovery time decreased considerably (P = 0.01) at extract dosages of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg or 11.33, 8.33, and 5.5 s, respectively. B. pinnatum leaves ethanolic extract extended the convulsion and reduced the time it took for the convulsion to begin. There was a substantial (P < 0.01) increase in clonic convulsion duration at doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg. In addition, the duration of convulsions was slashed significantly.[31]

Antiallergy activity

B. pinnatum was found to reduce allergic responses in an in vitro research. Since mast cell degranulation is inhibited and histamine release is reduced, it has antiallergenic properties.[32]

Anticancer activity

Leaf chloroform extract and its components reduced the growth of human testicular cancer cells. Apoptosis-associated protein electrolyte mobility shift assay were utilized to analyze human cervical carcinoma cells in vitro. Contaminants outperformed extracts in preventing cervical cancer.[33]

Antileishmanial activity

Chemically defined natural substances showed antileishmanial activity in plant extracts (coumarin and quercetin). B. pinnatum has antileishmanial flavonoid quercitrin. A function in antileishmanial activity oral administration of these flavonoids proved more efficient against leishmaniasis in mice than intravenous. To prevent leishmaniasis, plants may stimulate reactive nitrogen intermediates in macrophages.[34]

Herbal tonic

Dietary fiber, niacin, and ascorbic acid are all found in the plant. This plant is used to cure prostate cancer as well as the common cold. B. pinnatum and other herb extracts in herbal compositions are said to operate as tonics, boosting health and respiration.[35]

Nephroprotective effects

Scientific research has confirmed B. pinnatum's nephroprotective properties. The study found a dose-dependent effect. Whether plant antioxidants and radical scavengers could prevent gentamycin-induced kidney injury was studied in Wistar rats. It is stated that leaf juice is more effective than anticholinergic medicines in treating overactive bladder.[36]

Antibacterial activity

The plant has been used to treat Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, and Salmonella typhi. The extracts were tested against S. aureus ATCC 13709, E. coli, Bacillus, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and S. typhi. This medication prevents infections of the placental and navel of newborns. They are anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and antibacterial activity studied the effects of leaf juice.[37] The extract proved bactericidal against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. faecalis, E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Schmitt et al. used dilution tubes to test antibacterial action against Gram-positive bacteria. Akinpelu discovered that at 25 mg/ml, 60% methanolic leaf extract reduced the development of five out of eight bacteria tested. The extract had no effect on K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, or C. albicans.[38],[39],[40],[41]

Neuropharmacological activities

Aqueous leaf extract depressed the central nervous system (CNS). The mice given 50–200 mg/kg showed no signs of ptosis, although their locomotor activity significantly lowered. During the chimney, ascending, and inclined tests, mice given aqueous extract decreased muscle tone and balance.

Pentobarbitone led to greater sleep and lower chances of sudden death. Bufadienolide and other extract water-soluble components may cause CNS depression. Kalanchoe has been shown to have sedative and neural depressing activities in animals. A few of these effects were connected to an increase in GABA levels in the brain.[42],[43],[44]

Urolithic activity

This extract significantly decreases urinary oxalate levels, suggesting that it may be beneficial in treating urolithiasis. This plant has long been used to cure kidney stones. B. pinnatum dissolves kidney stones by breaking down calcium oxalate dehydrate crystals into monohydrates. Leaf extracts lowered oxidative stress and kidney stone development.[43],[45]

 Physicochemical Analysis



Results of quantifiable analysis for total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and loss on drying at 105°C values are arranged in [Table 2]. Total ash value is valuable in determining authenticity and purity of drug and also these values are important quantitative standards. Total ash values of root, stem, and leaf value were 10.03 ± 0.30, 13.50 ± 0.43, and 13.76% ± 1.01%, respectively. Total Ash value of plant material specified the amount of minerals, and earthy materials existing in the plant material. Analytical results shows that the total ash higher value was 13.76% ± 1.01% in leaf extract. Percentage weight loss on drying or moisture content of root, stem, and leaf value was 80.06 ± 0.75, 77.66 ± 0.83, and 91.46% ± 0.80%, respectively. The less value of moisture content could prevent bacterial, fungal, or yeast growth. Stem having less value compared leaf and root.{Table 2}

 Phytochemical Investigation



Phytochemical screening of leaves

The primary phytochemical screening of B. pinnatum leaves were observed for phytochemical with different solvents revealed strong presence of various chemical substances in using solvent aquesous and methanol. [Table 3] shows the outcomes of the phytochemical studies of B. pinnatum leaves.{Table 3}

Phytochemical screening of stem

The primary phytochemical screening of B. pinnatum stem was observed for phytochemicals with different solvents revealed strong presence of various chemical substances in methanol. [Table 4] shows the outcomes of the phytochemical studies of B. pinnatum stem.{Table 4}

Phytochemical screening of root

The primary phytochemical screening of B. pinnatum leaves, stem and root was observed for phytochemicals with different solvents revealed strong presence of various chemical substances in methanol and slightly present in distilled water, petroleum ether, chloroform and benzene solvents. [Table 5] shows the outcomes of the phytochemical studies of B. pinnatum root.{Table 5}

 Conclusion



B. pinnatum is very useful plant for treating several diseases such as wound healing, antiulcer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial activity, the list of following chemical constituents flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, and triterpenoid are responsible for this activity. B. pinnatum plant having active potential compounds in this plant. This herb has been used for generations to heal many ailments. These studies look at the plant's acute toxicity, antiulcer effectiveness, and pharmacognostic properties. The plant's macrostructure varied. Microscopic investigation revealed lignified walls in root and stem bark. Phytochemical analysis can identify plant metabolites. Leaves, stems, and roots had more physiologically active components than the other three plant sections. Although more research is required to identify the molecules and their potential health effects, these substances must be extracted and evaluated for future application. This study's findings support B. pinnatum medicinal qualities. B. pinnatum roots, stems, and leaves contain bioactive compounds worth investigating. This could help B. pinnatum-based pharmaceuticals.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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