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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-125

Online since Tuesday, March 14, 2023

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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and MicroRNAs: A Weighty Consideration p. 1
Sanjukta Mishra, RajLaxmi Sarangi, Swarnalata Das, Amresh Mishra
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of their target genes. The biological functions of miRNAs have been explored considerably. Numerous studies have demonstrated that extracellular miRNA could be implemented as a biomarker for several diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD embodies an array of defects extending from elementary steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which might advance to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma, which are closely linked to increased activity hepatic morbidity and mortality. Liver biopsy is acknowledged as the most precise practice for diagnosis and staging of NAFLD. Invasive drawbacks have prompted the likelihood of introducing an alternative noninvasive approach for consideration. Several lines of evidence have revealed that miRNAs are emerging as a potentially useful noninvasive marker for the development and progression of NAFLD. In addition, recent studies have identified that miRNAs take part in lipid metabolism linked to NAFLD and its advancement to severity. This article reviews the contemporary corroboration associating miRNAs and NAFLD and emphasizes the potential role of miRNA as a circulatory biomarker that could alert the growing prevalence of NAFLD. Furthermore, it acknowledges the valuable compendium of information regarding biogenesis and the role of circulating miRNA in lipid metabolism, which is intimately linked to NAFLD.
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Global escalation in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: Serious threat to human health from the pink corner p. 9
Mohan Bilikallahalli Sannathimmappa
Rise in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, especially among immunocompromised patients in healthcare settings is an imminent threat as they are difficult to treat and result in a prolonged length of hospital stay, frequent treatment failures, increased economic burden on the patient and the nation, and a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Major carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., and others. These bacteria that contaminate health-care settings are the major causes of a wide range of hospital-associated infections including life-threatening septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, bones and joint infections, and skin and soft-tissue infections. Carbapenems are regarded as last resort available antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections that show resistance to most of the beta-lactam antibiotics in addition to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens such as CRE and CRAB is a matter of serious concern because of limited treatment options and grave consequences. The World Health Organization has given level one priority to these pathogens and the United States Centers of Disease Control and Prevention considers CRE and CRAB as one of the top five most priority pathogens of public health importance. Strict control measures by the government and public is critical to prevent emergence and dissemination of these dangerous pathogens. In this article, the authors have summarized the microbiological and epidemiological perspectives of CRE and CRAB with a special focus on diagnosis, prevention, and novel promising alternative treatment strategies.
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Matrix metalloproteinases in oral cancer: A catabolic activity on extracellular matrix components p. 17
Vidya G Doddawad, S Shivananda, HL Kalabharathi, Aditya Shetty, S Sowmya, HK Sowmya
Zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of structurally related enzymes that are known to be crucial in the catabolic turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. MMPs are thought to control the activity of a number of non-ECM bioactive substrates, such as growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and cell receptors, which control the tissue microenvironment. The interaction between cells and ECM plays a key role in normal development and differentiation of organism and many pathological states as well. The primary class of controlling proteases in the ECM is known as MMPs. Aspects of normal physiology and pathology depend on the ability of MMPs to change the structural integrity of tissues. Uncontrolled ECM turnover, tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, cell proliferation, and migration are pathogenic alterations that can result from an imbalance between the concentration of active metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]). This detailed review provides some information on the function of MMPs in inflammatory, caries and periapical, cancer, and other oral diseases. Blood and saliva are the two biological fluids that are most frequently used to diagnose oral disorders. Most of the ECM components in patients undergo digestion to lower molecular weight forms, resulting in much higher amounts of MMPs in their saliva/blood than in healthy individuals. Conventional treatment successfully reduces the levels of MMPs which inhibits the progressive breakdown of collagens in ECM components.
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Constant romantic feelings and experiences can protect against neurodegeneration: Potential role of oxytocin-induced nerve growth factor/protein kinase B/Cyclic response element-binding protein and nerve growth factor/protein kinase B/Phospholipase C-Gamma signaling pathways p. 24
Mina Gholami, Enzo Emanuele, Majid Motaghinejad
Neurodegeneration – defined as a progressive cell loss in specific neuronal populations – has devastating clinical consequences with significant societal and economic implications. Although effective preventive measures are still lacking, features of positive mental health and emotional resilience have the potential to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Romantic experiences – which are characterized by intense emotional intimacy – have complex biological underpinnings including an increased production and release of oxytocin and nerve growth factor (NGF). Because both oxytocin and NGF can protect against neurodegeneration, we propose our hypothesis that being constantly engaged in romantic feelings and experiences may delay or even prevent the onset of NDDs. We also propose that this could occur at the molecular level through the NGF/protein kinase B (Akt)/cyclic-adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and NGF/Akt/phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-γ) signaling pathways. In this article, we describe this conceptual framework and delineate potential avenues for future research in the field.
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Effects of Chromium, Inositol and Resistant Starch Supplementation In Pcos: A Systematic Review p. 32
Nandita Krishnan, Supriya Velraja
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a diverse condition that has distinct signs and symptoms such as hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. It is a major hormonal disorder that affects the health-related quality of life and mental health of young women. The etiology of PCOS still remains uncertain but insulin resistance is one of the major factors seen in PCOS individuals which are characterized by the presence of acanthosis nigricans. Dietary interventions and lifestyle modification are being considered to be a first-line treatment for women with PCOS. Proper diet, adequate nutritional status, and following a physical activity routine help in alleviating the symptoms of PCOS. Dietary interventions should focus on weight management and insulin regulation. An abnormal gut microbiome function results in ovarian dysfunction, immune changes, insulin resistance, and disruption in bile synthesis. Therefore, gut health of women suffering from PCOS should be prioritized and interventions that improve the gut health should be followed. This systematic review is performed to investigate the association between micronutrient supplementation and PCOS. The related articles were searched using the databases PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. All the studies involving micronutrient supplementation and PCOS were included in this systematic review. Micronutrient supplementation was significantly inversely associated with improving PCOS prognosis. The main finding of the systematic review is that it concludes there is a direct association between micronutrient supplementation as it helps in alleviating the symptoms and maintaining a proper lifestyle in women with PCOS.
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Gene enrichment analysis and protein–protein interaction network topology delineates S-Phase kinase-associated protein 1 and catenin beta-1 as potential signature genes linked to glioblastoma prognosis p. 37
K Ashwini, Pavan Gollapalli, Shilpa S Shetty, Ananthan Raghotham, Praveenkumar Shetty, Jayaprakash Shetty, N Suchetha Kumari
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant and accounts for 60% of brain tumors in adults. Current therapy for GBM involves surgical removal of the tumor followed by radiotherapy with concomitant adjuvant therapy temozolomide. Despite improvements in therapy, patient survival remains low. The exact etiology of a brain tumor is uncertain, and numerous unknown genes are involved in the progression of GBM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate various genes involved in GBM through bioinformatic approach. Methods: In the present study, gene expression profile of GSE68424 was retrieved from the GEO database to explore the genes in GBM. Results: Analysis of expression profile data revealed that 33 genes were upregulated and 1189 genes were downregulated based on the log2 fold change cut-off criteria. The genes S-Phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) and Catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1) have been linked to GBM prognosis. Conclusion: SKP1 and CTNNB1 were identified as a candidate gene for GBM study as a result of these findings. Catenin beta-1 was the protein with the highest closeness centrality value and is the key component of canonical Wnt signaling downstream pathway. More study is needed to establish the molecular function of SKP1 and CTNNB1 in GBM development, as well as the biomarker's specificity and sensitivity.
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The consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 on acute kidney injury among iraqi patients p. 48
Zahraa Faris Al-Khero, Zahra’a Abd Al-Aziz Yousif, Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman, Allaa Hatim Thanoon
Background: COVID-19 is considered one of the most infectious diseases that can spread by air droplets and can cause serious complications in the respiratory tract, also could affect many organs like the kidney and causing acute kidney injury (AKI). The study aimed to evaluate the status of the kidney function of patients who are infected with COVID-19 and how the virus is involved in AKI. Methods: The research was conducted from 15 January to 25 February 2021. One hundred patients (56% of males and 44% of females) were involved in the present study. All the samples were tested for COVID-19 using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Kidney function tests such as serum creatinine and blood urea, as well as COVID-19 infection severity measurements such as level of ferritin, D-dimer, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were tested for all patients. Results: All enrolled patients were positive for COVID-19. All the patients (100%) were positive for AKI (the mean of urea and creatinine were 78.87 mg/dl, and 2.16 μg/ml, respectively) and the mean age was 66.9 years. The infection severity was high as the level of ferritin (729.19 ng/ml), D-dimer (3.84 μg/ml), and CRP (71.87 mg/L) were high compared to normal values. The study revealed that AKI is probably worsened by COVID-19 infection, which is also connected to the greater severity of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results, we found a direct link between COVID-19 infection and the development of AKI. The study recommended giving critical care and attention with respect to kidney function to those who had COVID-19 infection.
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Transfer learning-based electrocardiogram classification using wavelet scattered features p. 52
RS Sabeenian, KK Sree Janani
Background: The abnormalities in the heart rhythm result in various cardiac issues affecting the normal functioning of the heart. Early diagnosis helps prevent serious outcomes and to treat them effectively. This work focuses on classifying the various abnormalities with the changes in the heart rhythm and demographic data. The pretrained convolution neural network models classify the wavelet scattered data of different arrhythmic electrocardiograms (ECGs). Methods: The ECG signals of different anomalies from the PhysioNet database are re-sampled and segmented. The sampling is done using the linear interpolation method, which estimates values between the sample points based on nearby data points. The inter-dependence variances among the data points were extracted using wavelet scattering. The one-dimensional (1D) signal data are converted into 2D scalogram images using continuous wavelet transform. Pretrained deep learning models are used to extract features from the scalogram images and classify using a support vector machine classifier. The classification results are analyzed using various performance metrics such as precision, specificity, recall, F-measure, and accuracy. The relationship between the model performance and network depth and learnables is analyzed. Results: The classification results show that the ResNet18 achieves higher accuracy of 98.81% for raw data and 97.05% for wavelet scattered data. No dependency exists between the model depth, network parameters, and performance. The ResNet18 model achieves higher precision, recall, specificity, and F-measure values of 96.49%, 96.42%, 98.24%, and 96.45%, respectively, for wavelet scattered data. Conclusions: The ResNet18 achieves generalized results in classifying dimensionality-reduced data with reduced computational cost and high accuracy. The DenseNet model achieves higher performance metrics for raw data, whereas the ResNet18 model achieves higher performance metrics for wavelet scattered data.
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Modulation of platelet functions by European toad (Bufo Bufo) skin secretions components p. 60
Iryna Udovychenko, Tetiana Halenova, Oleksandr Artemenko, Tetiana Vovk, Nataliia Raksha, Savchuk Olexii, Liudmyla Ostapchenko
Background: A growing number of reports indicate that amphibian skin secretions may have a remarkable medical importance; however, the effects of the components of some dermal secretions on blood platelets and hemostasis are inadequately recognized. Since our previous studies demonstrated that the general Bufo bufo skin secretions induced platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma, this work was designed to study the effects of the components of some fractions on platelet functions to comprehend its possible mechanism of action as platelet modulators. Methods: Chromatographic separation of B. bufo general skin secretions was carried out using size exclusion chromatography. Rabbit platelets were purified by column chromatography on Sepharose 4B. Various aspects of platelet function such as activation, aggregation, and adhesion were evaluated. Results: One fraction, out of 7, dose-dependently induced aggregation of isolated platelets and was used in further experiments. The studied fraction was shown to induce platelet adhesion onto fibrinogen-coated surface. Furthermore, the results demonstrated the effects of the fraction on some processes that involved in platelets activation: The fraction components facilitated (Ca2+) i mobilization and attenuated platelets Akt phosphorylation, but had no effect on platelet serotonin secretion. Membrane integrity was determined using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. No increased LDH release was recorded that means no platelet damage, which could lead to misinterpretation of the data, occurred. Conclusion: The results suggest that components of the B. bufo skin secretions may be a promising source of natural compounds which can modulate platelet functions.
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Fine-needle aspiration cytology versus open biopsy for the diagnosis of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy p. 67
Shafia Arshad, Amina Arif, Maria Shakeel, Memoona Zahra, Romana Mehwish, Amna Riaz, Faheem Hadi
Background: For the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy, an open biopsy is recommended. When compared to open biopsy, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is considered safe, less invasive, and cost-effective. However, its diagnostic efficacy remains in debates. This study was conducted to know that how accurately FNAC can detect the pathology as compared to an open biopsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of FNAC versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. Methods: It is a comparative study at Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, for 6 months. The study comprised 100 patients who had been diagnosed with chronic cervical lymphoma. All of the patients underwent FNAC, which was followed by an open biopsy. Calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each technique was used to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the both techniques. Results: FNAC had a sensitivity and specificity of 92% overall. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tuberculosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, reactive hyperplasia, and chronic nonspecific lymphadenopathy had a diagnostic accuracy of 96.2%, 85.7%, 100%, 87.5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: In the management of cervical lymphadenopathy, FNAC is a reliable and safe procedure with a high diagnostic efficacy. It should be used as the first line of examination.
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Antidiabetic effect of Borassus flabellifer L. extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 72
Anitha Peter, Nargis Begum Tajudheen, Senthil Kumar Ramamoorthy
Background: Around the world, the number of people with diabetes is rising at an alarming rate, and experts have been using ancient drugs that are mostly made from plants as treatments.This study aimed to see if Borassus flabellifer L. palm sprout ethanolic extracts could help treat diabetes in rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods: STZ (45 mg/kg bw) was injected once into the peritoneum of male albino Wistar rats. This caused them to get diabetes. For 60 days, intragastric intubation was used to give diabetic rats B. flabellifer palm sprout ethanolic extracts (400 mg/kg bw) and glibenclamide (1 mg/kg bw). Results: As a result, the rats lost a lot of weight, their blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin levels went up, and their total hemoglobin (Hb) levels went down. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were higher in rats made diabetic by STZ, while hexokinase and glycogen levels were lower. When diabetic rats were given ethanolic extracts of B. flabellifer palm sprouts and glibenclamide, their blood glucose and glycosylated Hb levels went down very well, and their Hb levels went up. Changes in how enzymes that break down carbohydrates and liver glycogen work were greatly improved. Conclusion: The results of the ethanolic extracts of B. flabellifer palm sprouts were similar to those of the standard drug glibenclamide. The results of this study back up the traditional use of plant extracts to treat diabetes.
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An observational comparative study of clinicoepidemiological profile of COVID-19 patients admitted in the tertiary care hospital during first and second wave on pandemic p. 79
Surendra Babu Darivemula, Chennakesavulu Dara, Triveni Sagar, Sudha Bala, Venkatesham Animalla
Background: The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. India confirmed its first case of COVID-19 on 30 January and within 8 weeks the total number of cases had crossed the 1000 mark. Methods: An Observational comparative study was done to see the clinic epidemiological profile, and identify the determinants of COVID 19 patients admitted in the hospital in the last 1 year in both the first and second waves with respect to. All individuals testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were included. Results: A total of 1710 was hospitalized, 701 (40.9%) and 1009 (59.1%) were involved in first and second wave. The mean age was 42.58 ± 13.99 and 45.32 ± 14.18 and majority of them were belong to the 20–60 years and the comparison was showing statistically significant (P = 0.004). The participants affected with the risk factors like smoking 276 (27.3) and alcohol 237 (23.5) with P < 0.0001. The duration of stay was (median 6 [inter quartile range (IQR) 3–7] days in the first wave vs. median 7 [IQR 3–9] days in the second wave; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The second wave had shown more aggressive nature in spreading the COVID-19 infection than the first wave. Besides the steep rise of the cases, there has been more among the patients with commodities and risk factors in the second wave.
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Insight into biosorption of hexavalent chromium using isolated species Aspergillus Proliferans LA: A systemic and In silico studies p. 83
Abhimati Shukla, Lalit Kumar Singh
Background: The wastewater disposal into the water bodies without removing the toxic heavy metals and other industrial impurities is a major issue these days. These heavy metals cause serious health issues to the human and animal life and also harm the environment and reduce the productivity of crops. A potent microorganism resistant to hexavalent chromium was isolated. The activity of this isolated strain was analyzed using in silico studies. Methods: In this study, a chromium-resistant fungus was isolated from the soil of the dumping sites of the tanneries in Kanpur, UP, India, followed by isolation by serial dilution, plating method, and finally, genome sequencing. It was identified as Aspergillus proliferans LA that is submitted to the National Collection for Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) database with accession no. NCIM-1473. In the current study, the comparative analysis of the protein sequence of A. proliferans (NCIM-1473) was done against the known 53 protein sequences of the fungus and bacterial strains already reported for their chromium-resistant nature. The physical and chemical parameters of the known and isolated chromium-resistant proteins were analyzed using the ProtParam tool. The comparative study on the sequence and structural alignment of known and isolated chromium-resistant protein was done using EMBOSS-NEEDLE and FATCAT, respectively. Results: In this analysis, the top 10 strains showing similarity with A. proliferans (NCIM-1473) were reported and among which ChrI, chromium regulatory protein Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 was showing maximum similarity with isolated chromium resistant protein for all the analysis, namely ProtParam, sequence, and FATCAT analysis. This strain, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, has been reported resistant against eight heavy metals, one of which is chromate, and was first identified in the heavy-metal contaminated sludge in a settling tank of Belgium. Conclusion: These studies conclude that the strain isolated in our laboratory (accession no. NCIM-1473) is potentially chromium resistant and a unique strain.
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Microbial isolation and characterization of arsenic degrading microbes from soil and its RAPD analysis for bioremediation p. 93
Kaushika Shanmugam, Kalaivani Kumar, Srinisha Abhimanyu, Sri Sowmiya Selvaraju, B Sri Lakshmi Narayana, RS Sharanprasath, T Naveen Kumar, R Manikandan, S Hari bala
The aim of this work is to isolate the microbes possessing arsenic degrading property from contaminated soil, collected from Cauvery River at Pallipalayam, Erode District. Six microbial strains were grown well in 40Mm sodium arsenate as a sole carbon source amended M9 minimal media. Based on the zone of clearance, three microbial strains were found to be potent arsenic degrading microbes and they are identified as Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. They may potentially be used in the bioremediation of arsenic and other contaminants. It infers that the presence of arsenate reductase (ArcC) gene in three of the microbial strain and they were taken for further studies. Genomic DNA isolation protocol was standardized and DNA isolation was performed. ArcC gene-specific primers were designed using Primer3 bioinformatics tool. Genetic diversity among the strains was studied by RAPD analysis using four different primers. Dendrogram was constructed using Unweighted Pair Group using Arithmetic Averages and NJ tools. The presence of genetic diversity was observed from the analysis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of amplified gene products are to be done in future. Background: The aim of this work is to isolate the microbes possessing arsenic degrading property from contaminated soil, collected from Cauvery River at Pallipalayam, Erode District. Six microbial strains were grown well in 40Mm sodium arsenate as a sole carbon source amended M9 minimal media. Based on the zone of clearance, three microbial strains were found to be potent arsenic degrading microbes and they are identified as Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. They may potentially be used in the bioremediation of arsenic and other contaminants. It infers that the presence of arsenate reductase (ArcC) gene in three of the microbial strain and they were taken for further studies. Genomic DNA isolation protocol was standardized and DNA isolation was performed. ArcC gene-specific primers were designed using Primer3 bioinformatics tool. Genetic diversity among the strains was studied by RAPD analysis using four different primers. Dendrogram was constructed using Unweighted Pair Group using Arithmetic Averages and NJ tools.The presence of genetic diversity was observed from the analysis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of amplified gene products are to be done in future. Methods: The soil sample was collected from Cauvery River, Pallipalayam. Arsenate, arsenic bioremediation, arsenic reducing gene, RAPD, and genetic diversity were used. Results: With the dilution concentrations, 10−5 and 10−6 microbial population was obtained in M9 minimal media. From the pure colonies of isolates, TA1, TA2, TA4, and TA5 genomic DNA was extracted using the protocol mentioned above. The culture was inoculated in LB broth and kept in incubation at 37°C for overnight. From overnight culture, genomic DNA was extracted. RAPD analysis for the isolates was performed using four different random primers namely RBA-1, RBA-4, RBA-5, and RBA-6. Conclusion: Three of the isolates designated as TA2, TA4, and TA5 were found to be potent arsenic degarding microbes. They are able to degrade sodium arsenate of about 40mM. It infers that they can be potentially used in bioremediation of arsenic. Isolation of ArcC gene from the isolates is in progress. Sequencing will reveal the nature of amplified products. If the amplified genes are cloned and mass production of ArcC gene could be obtained.
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Effectiveness and adverse effects of astrazeneca and pfizer COVID-19 vaccines among medical students in Oman: A comparative study p. 101
Mohan Bilikallahalli Sannathimmappa, Vinod Nambiar, Rajeev Aravindakshan, Muqeet Fauzan Baig, Ahmed Kifah Hassan, Maryam Saud Mohammed Al-Balushi
Background: Immunization against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 became necessary to control the menace of COVID-19. However, the safety of COVID-19 vaccines must be monitored continuously. The present study aims at comparing the effectiveness and adverse effects of Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines among the cohort of medical students. Methods: It was a single-cohort comparative study, and the data were collected using an online survey from participants who took at least two doses of AstraZeneca or Pfizer vaccines. The data included demography, breakthrough infections, and adverse effects following vaccination. Bivariate and logistic regression models were used to find associations between effectiveness and independent variables. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: In total, 115 students who had received Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 21.52. Female (n = 90) participants were more compared to males (n = 25). The majority of them received Pfizer vaccine (95), while AstraZeneca was received by only 20 participants. Overall effectiveness of both AstraZeneca and Pfizer was nearly 85%, while almost 100% protection was observed among those who were vaccinated after contracting the disease. Logistic regression revealed an independent effect of COVID-19 before any vaccination dose offered 66% protection against any subsequent breakthroughs (odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.095–2.08). At least one adverse effect was reported by 96 (83.5%) participants (95% CI: 75.4%–89.75%). Pain at the site of injection, fever, generalized weakness, and headache were the most common adverse effects. Fever (P < 0.001), body ache (P < 0.001), generalized weakness (P = 0.002), and joint pain (P = 0.014) were significantly more common in AstraZeneca as compared to Pfizer. Conclusion: Coronavirus vaccines were well tolerated, safe, and induced protection in most participants. Most postvaccine adverse events were mild to moderate, mainly due to induction of immune response by the body for protection. Furthermore, these mild to moderate adverse effects should not be hindrance to vaccination.
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Investigating the association of IL12B and INFG Polymorphisms with the risk of pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma p. 106
Ghasem Fakhraie, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Kioomars Saliminejad, Poopak Farnia
Background: Immune responses may be involved in the development of pseudoexfoliation (PEX), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG), and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of IL12B rs3212227 A/C and INFG rs1861494 T/C polymorphisms with the risk of PEX, PEXG, and POAG in an Iranian population. Methods: Totally, 55 POAG, 57 PEX, and 78 PEXG patient cases as well as 79 healthy controls were included in this study. Genotyping of the IL12B and INFG polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods using TaqI and FauI restriction enzyme, respectively. Results: Results indicated that IL12B AC genotype was significantly higher in POAG (36.4%; P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7–10.0) and PEX patients (36.4%; P = 0.023; OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1–6.9) compared to the control group (12.6%). The C allele could be considered a risk factor for POAG (P = 0.002; OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 3.1–6.8) and PEX (P < 0.001; OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 3.4–7.3). INFG TC genotype was significantly higher in PEX (38.6%; P = 0.007; OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–6.3) and PEXG patients (37.2%; P = 0.009; OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1–6.9) compared to the control group (19.0%). The C allele seemed to be a risk factor for PEX (P = 0.002; OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.4–5.7) and PEXG (P = 0.009; OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.7). Conclusion: Overall, IL12B was associated with susceptibility to POAG and PEX, and IL12B C allele increased the risk of POAG and PEX. In addition, INFG was associated with susceptibility to PEX and PEXG, and the INFG C allele seemed to be a risk factor for PEX and PEXG.
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Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 interaction with growth factor receptor bound protein 7 acts as a molecular switch to activate non-small cell lung cancer: An in silico prediction p. 111
Anita Chauhan, Seema Kalra
Background: The progression and metastasis of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are considered a very complex process as it involves aberrations of multiple genes and cellular pathways. Genes which are differentially expressed in NSCLC have multi interactions with other genes, which can promote the carcinogenesis. To improve diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC, it is vitally important to study these interactions and understand their roles in the molecular mechanism of NSCLC. As the need to find more potential targets for NSCLC is very paramount we have predicted very important interactions for NSCLC. Methods: In our study, some NSCLC specific genes were differentially identified from microarray datasets and text mining of SCLC and NSCLC abstracts. The expression of these genes has been seen in 8 different cancer types and NSCLC stages. A network of genes specific to NSCLC has been identified and interactions of these NSCLC specific genes have been studied. Results: We found two network modules joined through erb b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) in NSCLC i.e. network of genes growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (GRB7), StAR related lipid transfer domain containing 3, post GPI attachment to proteins 3 and migration and invasion enhancer 1 ERBB2 interacting with GRB7 and PAK1 using GIANT. In normal lungs, ERBB2 is strongly interacting with PAK1 and in NSCLC it has strong interaction with GRB7. Conclusion: We have found that ERBB2 and GRB7 interaction is a transforming connection between normal lung and NSCLC.
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Changes in the level of zinc and copper and some biochemical parameters in patients with chronic kidney failure p. 118
Omar Mohamed Hameed, Sukayna Hussain Rashed, Luay Abed Al-Helaly
Background: Chronic kidney failure (CRF) is characterized by a progressive loss of functional status over weeks or months, which may result in one of the illness's recognized consequences, such as cardiovascular disease, chest pain, or anemia. CRF has been generally understood as a worldwide public health problem and a big factor to death and morbidity during the previous decade. Methods: Determination of zinc and copper, urea, creatinine, total protein, globulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in (CRF) Iraqi patients. This study included (40) patients and (38) healthy subjects as control. Samples were collected from January to April (2022). The biochemical parameters were determined using spectrophotometrically, but zinc and copper were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Copper, urea, creatinine, ALP, AST, ALT, and LDH were significantly higher in CRF patients, whereas zinc, total protein, albumin, and globulin were lower in CRF patients as compared with control. The research also concerned study the relation between sex (male and female) and biochemical parameters which showed significant differences in comparison male of patients with males of control, yet globulin showed nonsignificant differences. While patients and control females showed nonsignificant differences. Conclusions: LDH in CRF patients might be used as a biomarker to detect renal dysfunction in dialysis patients at an early point, and blood serum Zn deficit in CRF. Furthermore, a relationship among Zn and albumin amounts was discovered. As a result, Zn and copper in CRF, particularly hypoalbuminemia, must be frequently evaluated and adjusted.
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Cost–Utility analysis for rapid severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 antigen detection assay in comparison versus real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for laboratory diagnosis of coronavirus disease -2019 p. 123
Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Background: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still spreading. As a result, rapid, simple, and accurate diagnostics to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are urgently needed. For the diagnosis of COVID-19 cases, the performance characteristics of the quick SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test should be investigated and compared to the gold standard real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. The utility of the antigen detection test is reported from field evaluation. However, an interesting concern is on the utility of the test. Methods: Here, the authors perform a cost utility analysis to appraise rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection assay in comparison versus real-time RT-PCR assay for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Results: According to the analysis, the cost per utility of rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection assay is 3.24 times less than that of comparison versus real-time RT-PCR assay. Conclusion: Hence, it can conclude that rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection assay is appropriate for using for diagnosis of COVID-19 in term of cost–utility.
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