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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2022
Volume 6 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 295-471

Online since Saturday, September 17, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Phytochemical and pharmacological profile review of Bryophyllum pinnatum Highly accessed article p. 295
P Selvakumar
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_126_22  
Herbs are plants grown for their medicinal, flavoring, or aromatic properties. Herbal treatments are safe and efficient for treating a wide range of ailments. Western medicine, or allopathy, is primarily reliant on medicinal plants for some of its constituents. Herbal plants are the traditional and widely used type of medication, according to research. Until the last century, most remedies were made by hand, either from plants or animals. Synthetic pharmaceuticals are becoming increasingly popular, whereas natural drugs are showing promise in treating various disorders. A perennial plant thrives in India's wet and hot regions, like Bengal. It has 25 genera and 450 species. Succulent perennials have hollow stems, four-angled leaves, and numerous branches. The leaves are 10–20 cm elongated and decussate. A long petiole surrounds the three- to seven-foliate top leaf. They are dark green and scalloped with red ribbons. 30-35 cm long, 2–4 cm petioles, 6–8 X 3-5.5 cm blades, with latent buds that can develop into healthy plantlets with an acute tip. Rooting vegetative buds are on the leaves. This aromatic plant has been used for groups to heal many ailments. These studies look at the plant's acute toxicity, antiulcer effectiveness, and pharmacognostic properties. The plant's macrostructure varied. Microscopic examination discovered lignified walls in the root and stem bark. Phytochemical examination can identify plant metabolites. Leaves, stems, and roots had more physiologically lively constituents than the other three plant sections. Although more research is required to identify the molecules and their potential health effects, these substances must be extracted and evaluated for future application. This study's findings support Bryophyllum pinnatum medicinal potentials. B. pinnatum roots, stems, and leaves contain bioactive compounds worth investigating. This could help B. pinnatum-based pharmaceuticals.
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Pharmacoeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical ethics Highly accessed article p. 302
Huk Karina Ruslanivna, Bespalova Olena Yaroslavivna
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_115_22  
Nowadays, ethical standards of marketing, pricing, and safety strategies conducted by pharmaceutical manufacturers have declined significantly, which raises the question of health-care quality. The company's main objective has become to maximize profit and it is often done by unethical and deceptive marketing, implementation of direct-to-consumer ads, and educational meetings with a promotional character. One of the modern health-care areas, which aims to solve the ethical issues of the drug market, is pharmacoeconomics. The goal of pharmacoeconomics is not only the economic evaluation of various medical programs and pharmacological drugs but also the development of recommendations for the most efficient use of health resources and determining the right pricing and reimbursement strategy. Moreover, the use of the formulary system, which is the functioning tool of the evidence-based medicine (EBM), aims to provide an access to a wide range of certified and high-quality medicines that are recognized on the world market. Generics are considered a great substitutional option to the “ordinary” drugs due to their affordable price as the cost of prescription drugs in the world continues to be a source of concern. Another tool for providing affordable drug's prices is the reimbursement system, which offers a range of essential medicines at the reduced cost and can be product, disease, population, or consumption specific.
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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa a tenacious uropathogen: Increasing challenges and few solutions Highly accessed article p. 311
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani, Aalae Salman Ayit
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_256_21  
No population in the world can be cleared from urinary tract infections (UTIs) that considered the most common bacterial infection globally, every year more than 150 million people suffering from acute or chronic UTI caused by various bacteria. It is among the most frequent health care-associated diseases. In patients with UTI, Pseudomonas aeruginosa deserves special attention since it can affect patients with serious underlying conditions. P. aeruginosa is a multidrug-resistant pathogen causing numerous chronic infections including urinary tract disorders. Infection caused by this organism is difficult to treat because of the presence of its innate resistance to many antibiotics and its ability to acquire further resistance mechanism to multiple classes of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones; thus, the treatment option for these drug resistance pseudomonas are very limited. P. aeruginosa-induced UTIs continue to be linked with substantial mortality and morbidity. This adverse consequence is owing to our failure to create effective disease-prevention treatment methods, which is related to a lack of knowledge of resistance mechanisms. This study alerts researchers to the need to better understand the mechanisms of resistance in P. aeruginosa-caused UTIs to develop viable treatment options. The microbiological perspectives, virulence factors, epidemiology, mechanisms beyond antibiotic resistance, and antimicrobial sensitivity of P. aeruginosa in UTI are discussed in this review as well as future strategies to build basic information and clear vision to other researchers for more studies regarding this tenacious bacterium.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Immunoinformatics-based identification of highly conserved cytotoxic T-cell epitopes in polyprotein pp220 of african swine fever virus p. 319
Aiman Kiara Atienza Juan, Keana Milen Calara Palma, Marianne Bermudez Suarez, Leana Rich De Mesa Herrera-Ong
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_79_22  
Background: High mortality rate of pigs peaked in 2020 due to the re-emergence of a deadly African swine fever virus (ASFV) which has led to transcontinental outbreaks in Europe, reportedly from 2014 to 2019, and in Asia and the Pacific from 2018–2020. Given the huge socioeconomic consequences of the disease, vaccines that will prime the immunity of swine against this pathogen is a dire necessity. Methods: In silico identification and characterization of highly conserved cytotoxic T-cell (CD8+) epitopes derived from one of its structural proteins, pp220, were analyzed. Protein sequences of pp220 were retrieved and clustered to obtain highly conserved sequences. Cross-reactive epitopes were filtered out, and the remaining epitopes were docked with swine leukocyte antigen-1*0401 (SLA-1*0401). Furthermore, the epitope stability was determined by comparing binding energy, dissociation constant, and eigenvalues of the epitopes with the values of positive control, influenza-epitope complex. Results: This study showed that 20 highly conserved epitopes promiscuously bind to two or more SLAs and 9 of which epitopes (ALDLSLIGF, QIYKTLLEY, FLNKSTQAY, IADAINQEF, IINPSITEY, AINTFMYYY, SLYPTQFDY, RSNPGSFYW, and RLDRKHILM) that were validated exhibit potential immunogenicity based on the acceptable binding energy, dissociation constant, and eigenvalues. Conclusion: This study has identified epitopes that show high conservancy, reducing the chance of epitope immune evasion. It is anticipated that the identified epitopes must be further evaluated as a potential immunotherapeutic agent in developing an epitope-based vaccine against ASFV.
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Biological liquefaction and dehairing of tannery hides using protease crude extract from Bacillus safensis p. 326
Saranya Nachimuthu, Lavanya Nehru, Preethi Kathirvel
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_96_22  
Background: The contemporary usage of leather products has established large number of tanneries worldwide and increased the production of leather goods, releasing huge solid and liquid tannery waste. The amount of firm waste from the unprocessed skins and hides generated from tannery is increased day by day posing a solemn threat to the health and environment. It was reported to account 5-7% of the total solid wastes. This study aims for the biological approach of utilizing tannery hide waste for the production of bacterial enzymes. Proteases produced by the microbes have multiple commercial and industrial applications. Methods: The physiochemical property of raw trimming of bovine tannery hides was analyzed for the segregation of protease constructing bacteria. Seven bacterial isolates from the raw trimming bovine tannery hides were isolated and screened for their protease production and activity. The isolated bacterial strains were documented through morphological, biochemical tests and confirmed by MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus safensis. Results: Among the seven isolates, Bacillus safensis established better proteolytic action. The culture conditions and media requirements were optimized for the maximum growth of the chosen bacteria. The crude proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus safensis was extracted, analyzed for its application in tannery hide dehairing activity through microbial fermentation. Further, the antibacterial and antioxidant properties displayed by the protease crude extract from Bacillus safensis could be explored for potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Conclusion: The verdict of the present study reveals a novel source of protease enzyme with the superior dehairing activity. Further, the research shed light on the strategies to reduce environmental pollution by the conversion of tannery waste into economically important products.
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Anticancer activity of tin oxide and cerium-doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized from Ipomoea carnea flower extract p. 337
Manivannan Prasanth, Gurusamy Muruganandam, Krishnasamy Ravichandran, Gnanasekar Dayana Jeyaleela, Krishnasamy Shanthaseelan, Baskaran Pradhiba Priyadharshini
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_100_22  
Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the anticancer potential of tin oxide (SnO2) and different concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) of cerium-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (Ce-SnO2 NPs) using Ipomoea carnea flower extract. The synthesized SnO2 and different concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) of Ce-SnO2 NPs was tested using a colorimetric-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line cells. Methods: Collection and preparation of plant extract is preliminarily carried out followed by the synthesis of Undoped and Cerium doped Tin oxide nanoparticles is achieved by standard protocol along with that its anticancer activity also studied in this research. Results: The anticancer activity increased in direct proportion to the cerium-dopant concentration. Experimental results demonstrated that 8% Ce-SnO2 NPs exhibited a potential anticancer effect compared with SnO2 and other concentrations of Ce-SnO2 NPs. Conclusion: According to the current findings, large-scale manufacturing of Ce-SnO2 NPs might be recommended to have effective anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines.
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Anti-Oxidant and anti-cancer activities of biogenic synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles p. 341
Aranganathan Agila, Joseph Devaraj Rosaline Vimala, Moses Stella Bharathy, Gnanasekar Dayana Jeyaleela, Sagaya Adaikalaraj Margrat Sheela
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_136_22  
Background: The nature acts like a large “bio-laboratory” comprising plants, algae, fungi, yeast, etc., which are composed of biomolecules. These naturally occurring biomolecules have been identified to play an active role in the formation of nanoparticles. Methods: This research work mainly aims to investigate the anti-oxidant (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay) and anti-cancer (Michigan cancer foundation-7 cell line) capacities of biologically prepared copper oxide mediated from the hydroalcoholic extract of Justicia glauca by simple precipitation and also to identify the phytochemicals in the extract by qualitatively. Results: On screening test, the extract shows the presence of carbohydrate, phenolics, alkaloids, and terpenoids saponins which are chiefly act as a reducing, stabilizing, and capping agents in nanomaterial preparations. The medicinal plant Justicia glauca extract-mediated copper oxide materials were synthesized by lost cost, simple, effective, and eco-friendly precipitation method. The prepared copper nanomaterials were characterized by ultraviolet–visible, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope. The obtained spectral results reveal that the prepared particles were found to be elliptical flat shapes of copper oxide with the average size of 19.72 nm with 51.11% of copper and 48.89% of oxygen elements. Especially, on anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities the prepared Justicia glauca extract-mediated copper oxide revealed excellent potent while comparing the other green synthesized copper oxide particles. Conclusion: Overall results evidenced that the aqueous extract of Justicia glauca is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles.
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In silico Study of the interaction of fucoidan with thrombolytic agents p. 349
Victoria Evgenievna Suprunchuk
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_121_22  
Background: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is one of the most widely used drugs in thrombolytic therapy. However, due to the inactivation of tPA in the bloodstream and increased risk of bleeding with increasing tPA dosages, the development of targeted delivery systems of tPA is required. For these purposes, it is possible to use fucoidan. The aim of the work was to study the possibility of forming of tPA-fucoidan conjugates and maintaining the activity of the enzyme using molecular docking. Methods: Docking simulations between tPA and fucoidan were performed by use of a docking software AutoDock tools version 1.5.7 and AutoDock 4.2.6. Using “blind docking” to identify the centers of molecular docking approaches of the enzyme (tPA) with the ligand (the active part of the fucoidan structure), as well as to establish the influence of the ligand on the active site of the enzyme. Results: Two “hot spots” of fucoidan binding to the enzyme were found: the region containing SER85-CYS97 residues and the region containing PHE217-TYR223 residues. This interaction can lead to the successful binding of the enzyme and polysaccharide to form a protein-polysaccharide complex. In this case, there may be a lack of suppression of the action of tPA. The interaction with the ligand was found to occur on the surface of the protein molecule. Conclusions: In this study, coupling simulations of interactions of tPA with fucoidan were conducted. The resulting conjugate can be used in the development of systems for the targeted delivery of a thrombolytic agent. This study predicts that the formation of tPA-fucoidan conjugate is a promising approach for optimizing treatment strategies for thrombosis.
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Inhibitory effect of Basella alba-Mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles against the infection-causing bacteria p. 353
Aranganathan Agila, Gnanasekar Dayana Jeyaleela, Joseph Devaraj Rosaline Vimala, Moses Stella Bharathy, Sagaya Adaikalaraj Margrat Sheela
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_144_22  
Background: Naturally occurring biomolecules from the plant extract have been identified to play an active role in the formation of any nanoparticles. Methods: This work aimed to synthesize the nano-sized zinc oxide material (zinc oxide nanoparticles [ZnONPs]) using the 70% ethanolic leaf extract of Basella alba by precipitation method and also studied the antibacterial activity of green-synthesized ZnONPs on infection-causing five bacteria. Synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by the aid of ultraviolet (UV)-visible, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). Results: Qualitative analysis and UV results of extract reveal the occurrence of some medicinally important phytomolecules such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic acids, and ascorbic acid. The spherical nature of ZnONPs was observed with an average crystalline size of 28.64 nm. EDAX analysis revealed the elemental compositions in the B. alba-mediated ZnONPs (BA-ZnONPs) which showed zinc in 70.04% and oxygen in 29.96%. BA-ZnONPs were tested against the bacteria (an infection causing) such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Proteus vulgaris, which results that, against all the pathogens, ZnONPs showed noticeable inhibition effects compared with zinc acetate and B. alba extract. Especially against the E. coli, ZnONPs performed well with inhibitory effect and least on S. aureus. Conclusion: Antibacterial activities of BA-ZnONPs were studied which can act as the new antimicrobial-resistant agents.
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Determination of In vitro Antimicrobial activity of copper on the clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp p. 360
Nila Begum, Md Shahidul Kabir
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_129_22  
Background: Acinetobacter spp., emerging pathogens equipped with the competence to establish multitudinous severe infections in immunocompromised hosts, are grievous threats to human health. To tackle the enormous burden of disease caused by Acinetobacter spp., the headlong discovery and the advancement of novel therapies are of the essence at this juncture. The present study attempted to determine the antimicrobial effects of copper on the clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. (Iso-03 and Iso-04). Methods: The potential deployment of copper-based antibacterial strategies against Acinetobacter spp. was assessed by exposing the isolates to the increasing concentrations of CuSO4 (from 2.5 to 1.5 mM) in liquid culture (M9 minimal medium) for 6 h and also through the exposure of them on solid metal surfaces (stainless steel and copper coupons) for 75 min, wherein the copper sensitivity and resistance of the clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were determined. Results: There was no interference with the growth of the isolates at the low concentrations, whereas the bacterial growth was affected by the high concentrations of CuSO4 at different levels. During the exposure on the solid metal coupons, no loss of viability of isolates was observed on stainless steel, however, the rapid death of isolates was discernible on copper surface, leading to a dramatic decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs), eventually to the limit of detection (3 CFUs per coupon). Conclusion: This study substantiated that copper possesses antimicrobial properties which can be deployed in novel therapies for the prevention of the infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. and other emerging pathogens. Further studies on the sensitivity and resistance of Acinetobacter spp. to copper at the molecular genetics levels can open the door to better exploitation of this metal for the inhibition of the vigorous growth of drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp.
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Elevated urinary CD80 excretion in children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome p. 367
Nakysa Hooman, Hasan Otukesh, Rozita Hosseini, Azar Nickavar, Farzaneh Dastan, Mahboubeh Jafari Sarouei, Parisa Honarpisheh
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_156_22  
Background: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is one of the most common glomerular diseases in children with different pathological types and different responses to corticosteroids. A definitive diagnosis is essential for planning the treatment and determining the prognosis of these patients and currently, kidney biopsy is the only method for definitive diagnosis. However, this is an invasive procedure. In addition, in some cases, the biopsy is contraindicated or tissue obtained on biopsy is insufficient and may not represent the underlying disease. According to the recent hypothesis about the role of circulating permeability factors in the pathogenesis of INS, urine protein analysis as a noninvasive method to determine the specific biomarkers of the disease is of great interest to nephrologists and can be useful. Methods: In this case − control study, we analyzed urinary CD80 (uCD80) levels in 51 patients with INS using a special CD80 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and were compared between different groups of patients. Results: The highest urine CD80/creatinine ratio was found in patients with active minimal change disease and steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome in the relapse stage of the disease. Conclusion: A significant level of uCD80 is correlated with better renal function and a more favorable response to steroids in patients with INS. Therefore, it can be concluded that a high level of uCD80 is correlated with a good prognosis in these patients.
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Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants and antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Mammaliicoccus sciuri isolated from acne p. 372
Meghali Goswami
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_135_22  
Background: Acne vulgaris is a distressing condition that affects most adolescents, causing scarring and reducing the quality of life. Among all the available therapeutic options, antibiotics are routinely used to treat moderate acne. In some cases, the clinical symptoms temporarily disappear after applying the prescribed medications, but its reoccurrence along with the misuse and overuse of the prescribed antibiotics may result in the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. Methods: The present study aims to isolate and identify acne-causing bacteria from two individuals, who developed chronic or recurrent papules or pustules on their face and neck. The effect of different physiological factors on the growth of these bacteria was evaluated, followed by an evaluation of microbial adhesion, biofilm formation, hemolytic activity, extracellular enzyme production, and antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants and antibiotics. Results: The predominant bacteria in acne samples were Gram-positive cocci, which were identified as Staphylococcus aureus strain GCC20_MS and Mammaliicoccus sciuri strain GCC20_MS. Both the isolates showed maximum viability at pH 7.0 and significant growth up to 10% NaCl concentration. A decreased viable count with the increase in Lysozyme concentration was also observed. The cell-surface hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation of both the tested isolates were very low; however, the strains were moderate biofilm producers. S. aureus strain GCC_20MS exhibited β-hemolysis, whereas M. sciuri strain GCC_20RS showed γ-hemolytic activity (no-hemolysis). Antibiotic-sensitivity test showed resistance of both the strains toward penicillin and sensitivity toward tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, co-Trimoxazole, gentamicin, and ofloxacin. The aqueous extracts of Citrus limon and Psidium guajava significantly inhibit the growth of the isolated strains. Moderate growth inhibition was observed by the aqueous extracts of Mentha sachalinensis and Punica granatum. Conclusion: The study suggests the efficacy of topical anti-acne formulations using plant extracts that may target the early processes of acne development and combat the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains.
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Designing a circular coil of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at frequencies of 0.5 and 1 Hz using CST studio suite software and comparison of results with theoretical calculations p. 382
Hassan Tavakoli, Arsalan Heidarpanah
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_174_22  
Context: Since the 1990s, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used as a noninvasive method to diagnose and manage the treatment of many neurological disorders. The circular coil is one of the most common coils in rTMS devices. This study presents the design documentation of a circular coil for use in the rTMS device and examines the consistency of the magnetic field intensity (H) and the magnetic flux density (B) obtained from the simulation of its use with the theoretical values. Aims: This study aimed to design a rTMS circular coil at frequencies of 0.5 and 1 Hz using CST Studio Suite software and compare the intensity of the B- and H-fields with theoretical calculations. Materials and Methods: After designing a circular coil, we measured B and H by simulation with CST Studio Suite software and compared the results with theoretical calculations. Results: The magnetic field intensity and the magnetic flux density obtained from the circular coil simulation we designed had an acceptable consistency with the theoretical values. Conclusions: The B- and H-field intensity whether on the body or in the air, or on the antenna, is fairishly consistent with theoretical calculations.
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Pretargeting articulation for improving the deliverance of injected dose to the tumor: An evaluation of In vivo study for enhanced tumor uptake p. 387
Pankaj Garg
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_149_22  
Background: Radiobioconjugate targeting using monoclonal antibodies linked to a high-energy radionuclide is a promising approach for treating metastatic cancer. The central problem of radiobioconjugate targeting is the small fraction of radiobioconjugate localized in the tumor. Pretargeting based on avidin–biotin approach has been recommended to maximize tumor targeting. The current study was conceded with an aim to assess a selective targeting strategy for the site-specific deliverance of an injected radioactive dose to the tumor cells. Methods: Two labeling protocols were tested and evaluated, both for the direct and indirect radiolabeling of antibodies with radionuclide technetium. A comparative evaluation of biodistribution studies relating to the deposition of injected dose in different organs was carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice both for a direct single-step and indirect multistep pretargeting approach. Results: High concentration of the injected dose was accounted in the nontarget organs and blood for a direct targeting mode, as compared to indirect multistep pretargeting with high tumor uptake. Better tumor visibility and high tumor/nontumor ratio were observed at 24 h and 48 h. However, a considerable deposition of radioactivity in the organs such as liver, spleen, kidney, and lungs as a nonspecific, reticuloendothelial system uptake was observed as a cause of concern and the use of certain blocking agents were explored, effective for reducing the same. Conclusions: The study demonstrates a successful targeting efficiency of the radiolabeled bioconjugate for technetium (Tc-99m), through a multistep pretargeting approach, and the same can be applied for other related therapy radionuclides also.
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Immunocytochemical expression of AE1/AE3 and cytokeratin 20 in the urinary cells of cigarette smokers in South-West Nigeria p. 394
Ayodeji Blessing Ajileye, Frederick Olusegun Akinbo
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_95_22  
Background: Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important risk factor for some cancers and the second leading risk factor for death in the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunocytochemical expression of AE1/AE3 and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in the urinary cells of cigarette smokers in South-West, Nigeria. Methods: Urine samples were collected from 250 cigarette smokers and 200 noncigarette smokers in South-West, Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to subjects before specimen collection. About 10 ml of urine samples were collected from every subject into a clean sterile universal bottle, thereafter transferred into a clean test tube and spun with a cytocentrifuge for the use of staining with immunocytochemical biomarkers (AE1/AE3 and CK20). Results: Immunocytochemical staining carried out on the urine smears of cigarette smokers revealed that 2.8% of the samples expressed AE1/AE3, while 1.1% expressed CK20. None of the urinary smears of nonsmokers expressed AE1/AE3 and CK20. Furthermore, being cigarette smokers did not strongly influence the expression of AE1/AE3 and CK20 in the urine of cigarette smokers. Conclusion: Based on the outcome of this study, cigarette smoking has been seen to be one of the leading causes of renal diseases and one of the major causes of cancer among cigarette smokers.
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Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nigella sativa seed extract and its efficacy against some multidrug-resistant uropathogens p. 400
Christian Kelechi Ezeh, Chibuzor Nwadibe Eze, Marie Esther Uju Dibua, Stephen Chijioke Emencheta, Cornelius Chukwuemeka Ezeh
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_104_22  
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most chronic infections in humans, as well as the most common cause of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen emergence, necessitating the quest for stringent antibiotic treatment. In the imperative search for effective drugs to combat MDR, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are given priority. The objective of this study was to synthesize, characterize, and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs synthesized using Nigella sativa on MDR uropathogens. Methods: Urine samples of suspected UTI patients were collected using sterile sample bottles and cultured on different agar media to isolate and identify uropathogens using conventional method. All isolates were screened for multidrug resistance by disk diffusion method following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline with slight modification. N. sativa seed extract was used to synthesize AgNPs from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3). AgNPs formed were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Antibacterial activities of synthesized AgNPs were assessed (in vitro) by disc diffusion method against MDR isolates, and cytotoxicity was evaluated using brine shrimp lethality assay. The formed AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis, and antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs was assessed (in vitro) by impregnated disc diffusion method against MDR isolates. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Multiple antibiotic-resistant indexes of the isolates ranged between 0.4 and 0.75 against the different standard antibiotics tested. The color change from pale yellow to dark brown was indicative of AgNP formation. UV-Vis spectrum of solution containing AgNPs exhibited peak wavelengths of 378 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that terpenoids, flavonoid, and phenols played an important role in the biosynthesis. Irregular shapes within nanoscale range were detected using SEM. XRD showed that the particles were crystalline in structure with an average size of 32 nm. The mean diameter zone of inhibition (in mm) for the different isolates at the dose of 100 μg/mL concentration showed maximum for E. coli (18 mm) followed by both Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus at 17 mm. Conclusion: The study underscores the efficacy of the plant-mediated nanoparticles as well as their potential for use as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents for the management of MDR uropathogens.
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Baby crying analyzing and solution using matlab graphical user interface; interdisciplinary collaboration between engineering and nursing p. 410
Efe Çetin Yilmaz, Serap Ozdemir
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_173_22  
Background: Babies can express all their needs (such as hunger, pain, tiredness, discomfort, and so on) to their parents with crying behavior that being able to predict these behaviors of babies correctly parents is extremely important for the comfort of babies. In recent years, analyzing the baby crying sound and interpreting it in line with the needs has been developing as an important process in the estimation of baby needs. Methods: Analyzing the spectra of the baby crying sound over time and amplitude period creates a significant knowledge base on the prediction of baby needs. Within the scope of this study, a new method has been developed for the development of various technical analyzes of a sample baby crying sound using the MATLAB program. Results: With this method, the energy fluctuations in the sample baby crying sound were analyzed, and the changes in the crying process were examined through the baby crying process. Conclusions: As a result, thanks to the analysis data obtained within the scope of this study, it is aimed to provide data to autonomous controlled baby care units that can be manufactured in future studies.
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Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in abrogated cardio protective effect of ischemic postconditioning in diabetic rat heart p. 416
Garima Gupta, Vibhav Varshney, Ahsas Goyal, Jeetendra K Gupta, HN Yadav
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_90_22  
Background: Diabetes decreased cardioprotective potential of ischemic postconditioning (IPOC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) induced the cardioprotection against ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of ANP induced postconditioning in diabetic rat heart. Methods: Isolated Langendorff perfused normal and diabetic rat hearts were stabilized for 10 min proceed by global ischemia further followed by four cycles of IPOC, each cycle comprised 5 min of reperfusion and 5 min of ischemia at onset of 120 min of reperfusion. Perfusion of ANP (0.1μM/l) with Krebs–Henseleit Buffer solution in isolated diabetic rat heart for four-cycle of IPOC significantly decreased I/R-induced myocardial infarct size and release of CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in coronary effluent. Results: Four cycles of IPOC-induced cardioprotection noted by decreased in infarct size and also in release of LDH and CK-MB in normal rat heart. However, IPOC-induced cardioprotection was completely attenuated in isolated heart obtained from diabetic rat. Perfusion of ANP (0.1μM/L) significantly restored the attenuated cardioprotection in diabetic rat heart, which was completely blocked by perfusion of L-NAME (100μM/L), an eNOS inhibitor. Conclusion: So that, ANP restored cardioprotective affect in diabetic rat heart, which was completely abolished by the perfusion of L-NAME (100μM/L), an eNOS inhibitor.
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Relationship between the hematological indices and COVID-19 p. 422
Noon Ahmed Khalil, Babiker Saad Almugadam, Abdalkhalig Elkhider
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_151_22  
Background: Recently, the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has a wide spread around the world. Clinically, it was responsible for respiratory illness ranged from mild to life-threatening infection. The study aimed to investigate the link of gender, age, ABO blood groups, and hematological indices with COVID-19 infection. Methods: One hindered COVID-19 cases, as confirmed using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction test, were checked for some sociodemographic features, blood group, and hematology parameters. A blood sample was collected from each person in an EDTA container and immediately tested for blood group using commercial antisera, in addition to complete blood count parameters using of a semiautomated hematology analyzer (Mindray BC-3200). Results: Of 100 COVID-19 patients, 52% were male and 48% were female. About 33% and 31% of the study participants were of age group 15–31 and 32–49 years, respectively. The majority (37%) of COVID-19 patients carried blood group O+ve, followed by A+ve (24%). A+ve blood group was significantly more reported in males (32.7%) than females (14.6%). Notably, 61% of participants showed low Hb level. Erythropenia was detected in 41% of the participants, while thrombocytopenia was observed only in 19% of the patients. Moreover, lymphocytopenia was detected in 82%, low packed cell volume in 66%, decreased mean corpuscular volume in 20%, and declined mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in 8% of the participants. In contrast, leukocytosis and neutrophilia were found in 69% and 73% of the participants, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, the study findings highlighted the link of COVID-19 with age, gender, blood groups, and hematology parameters, which is important in diagnosis, prognosis, and management of illness.
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A novel experimental static deflection equation for specific cantilever beam made of ionic polymer–metal composite p. 429
Amin Nasrollah, Poopak Farnia, Saba Hamidgorgani, Jalaledin Ghanavi
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_180_22  
Background: Nowadays, ionic polymer–metal composites are widely used in various industries. They are in the group of electroactive polymers and smart materials with electromechanical properties. By applying a small amount of voltage, the nonlinear stress inside them will happen and their deformation can be seen. The energy transformation from electrical to mechanical is observable during the process of giving voltage to a specimen. The aim of this study is to investigate a novel experimental static deflection equation for specific cantilever beam made of ionic polymer–metal composite. Methods: In this paper, an ionic-polymer-metal composite is provided; the main core is based on an electroactive Fluoropolymer named Nafion, and the coated electrodes are made of Platinum. The length of the specimen is 27.131 mm and its width is 5.728mm. Voltage from 1.5 to 4.3V was applied to the specimen used in this study; the y-directional displacement of the IPMC at each step is measured and recorded; then, a finite element analysis was performed. Curve fitting of the data for the experimental analysis was also done. Moreover, the governing relations of IPMC according to the Nernst–Planck equation were investigated in this study. Results: The results have been validated in two forms of finite element method and experimental analysis. The results of finite element analysis showed that the ion flux in the polymer is calculated by the equation: [INSIDE:1]. In other words, this equation, which is called Nernst–Planck, is the basic equation of this type of material. This equation is the main governing equation to describe the transfer phenomena of IPMC materials. Furthermore, in order to calculate the deflection of IPMC membrane, 19 equations designed in this study were used. In the next step, the results of the experimental analysis showed that, based on the field emission scanning electron microscope images, the Nafion surface is completely sandblasted and its area is completely uniform. The right image taken by Dino-Lite shows the thesis effect on the electrode. Furthermore, the results showed that IPMC has high-quality coated electrodes. Conclusions: It is shown that a nonlinear equation governs the behavior of IPMCs' deflection versus voltage.
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Characterization of small colony variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae: Correlation with antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation p. 438
Dania Hassan, Michael Magaogao, Ashfaque Hossain
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_154_22  
Background: Small colony variants (SCVs) of bacterial pathogens are smaller, slow-growing variants which often pose a challenge to the clinical microbiologist in their identification and characterization. SCVs are receiving much attention in recent years due to their association with several types of chronic infections. In this study, we aimed to develop a suitable culture media for high frequency generation and stable maintenance of SCV of Klebsiella pneumoniae. We also intended to compare different phenotypic characteristics such as growth, antibiotic resistance pattern, and biofilm-forming potential of SCVs with the original parental strain. Methods: We used Mueller–Hinton agar containing the extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) for the generation of SCV. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined using disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations using microdilution method. Biofilm formation was assessed using crystal violet dye binding assay. Results: Mueller–Hinton agar (MHA) containing clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extract (10% volume/volume; MHA-C10) supported generation of SCV from K. pneumoniae at high frequency. SCVs were smaller in colony size and grew slowly in comparison to the wild-type original strain. In addition, SCVs exhibited increased resistance to aminoglycoside group of antibiotics (gentamicin and kanamycin). Crystal violet dye binding spectrophotometric method showed increased biofilm formation potential by SCVs in comparison to their parental counterparts. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that MHA-C10 can be used as a bacterial culture media for the formation of SCV by K. pneumoniae. SCVs, thus, generated on MHS-C10 exhibited typical characteristics of SCVs.
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The association of serum creatine phosphokinase levels with severity of lung involvement and hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 p. 443
Arda Kiani, Fatemehsadat Rahimi, Siamak Afaghi, Marjan Mehrparvar, Sasan Tavana, Mohammad Varharam, Atefeh Abedini
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_193_22  
Background: An increase in the serum levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) could be associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients; however, detailed information on this association is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate upon admission CPK serum level and its relationship with the degree of involvement in chest computed tomography (CT) scans and hypoxia in patients with COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on 191 COVID-19 patients who were referred to a major respiratory referral center in Tehran, Iran, in 2019. CPK serum level, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, temperature, and severity of lung involvement (based on lung CT scan) were measured. The severity of lung involvement in cuts of CT imaging was reported with a score between 1 and 4. The descriptive and relational statistics were conducted using Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance. Results: The average age of the patients was 55.22 ± 15.39 years, and the male was predominant in gender (65.4%). There was a statistically significant relationship between CPK serum level and the severity of lung involvement in patients with COVID-19 (P = 0.04). Furthermore, a significant and reverse correlation was observed between CPK serum level and oxygen saturation in the patients (r = –0.160, P = 0.04). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that COVID-19 patients with elevated CPK levels upon admission are prone to more severe lung involvement, worsening oxygenation, and respiratory failure. Hence, considering the initial critical care strategies for such patients could be of the essence.
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Endoscopic changes in the gastrointestinal tract in children with helicobacteriosis p. 448
Shokhida Tolkunovna Turdieva
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_2_22  
Background: All over the world, chronic gastroduodenal pathology (CGDP) occurs in children from 3.2% to 52% and takes 2nd place after diseases of the respiratory system. The main pathogen is Helicobacter pylori (HP), and the problem of studying endoscopic changes in the stomach and duodenum in n these children remains relevant. This study investigated changes observed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examination of the mucous layer of the upper digestive tract in children CGDP and its features in HP infection. Methods: A total of 128 children aged 6 to 15 years exhibited CGDP. All patients underwent EGD, with a description of the visible mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum. Research on HP infection was carried out by two methods: a breath test and an immunochromatographic faecal test. Results: It was noted that the rate of Helicobacter pylori infection was higher in patients with ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract than in patients with inflammatory processes (on average 1: 0.6). A high prevalence of gastroesophageal and duodenogastric reflux was revealed in patients with HP infection. In children with HP infection, atrophic lesions of the antrum and body of the stomach, bulbar and distal duodenum prevailed. Conclusions: Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers developed 94% more often in children with HP infection than in HP-uninfected patients (P<0.005), and atrophic changes in the mucous layer of the stomach and intestines were 4 times more common against the background of the more common gastroduodenal (by 77.6%) and duodenogastric (by 67.4%) reflux.
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B viral infection in the okpoko community p. 454
Ndubuisi Obiora Nwachukwu, Christopher Uche Okoronkwo, Precious Ndudi Duru
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_85_22  
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is a potentially life-threatening liver infection. Little is known about seroprevalence at the community level. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted at Okopko, an urban slum in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria, using a multistage sampling technique. Stages were the constituency level, ward, and household levels. A total of 867 participants were enrolled. Methods: Testing for the markers of HBV was performed using Diagnostic Kit (USA). The test panel detects hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to e antigen (HBeAb), core antibody (HBcAb), and surface antibody (HBsAb) using colloidal gold and membrane chromatographic technology. Results: The seroprevalence of HBsAg was 6.6%. Seroprevalence was higher in males (7.4%) than in females (5.5%) (P > 0.05). The peak seroprevalence occurred in the age group of 40–49 years for both males (13.6%) and females (8.1%) (P < 0.05). Exactly 4.7% were positive for HBeAg and 5.8% for HBsAg + HBeAg + HBcAb. Only 1% was positive for HBsAb. Conclusion: Okpoko community has a high intermediate prevalence rate of HBV infection. The HBV vaccination level is very low in the community.
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Development and validation of chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of aceclofenac, paracetamol, and chlorzoxazone with impurities p. 458
Rajshree Gunjal, Arti Gajbhar, Vijaya Vichare, Abhijeet Sutar, Minal Deshmukh, Vishnu Choudhari
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_92_22  
Background: Analysis of tertiary mixtures of analytes along with their impurities with simple and cost effective manner is always of interest. Utility of chemometric techniques are growing in pharmaceuticals, it improve speediness in the analysis and also provide analytical solutions with reduce the number of steps in the analytical method. In this study UV-Visible spectrophotometry coupled with principle component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) multivariate methods was applied for estimation of three drugs in their formulation. Method: The calibration and validation sets were prepared in linear concentration range of three drugs and major impurities of paracetamol and aceclofenac. The series of sets were prepared using multilevel multifactorial design. Leave- One-Out (LOO) cross validation technique was employed to get essential number of Latent variables (LVs) that provides the greatest predictive ability. The developed method was studied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of titled drugs and validated as per regulatory guidelines. Results: The results showed the values of coefficient of determination (R2) for all drugs and impurities was higher than 0.99 indicating high acceptability. The obtained RMSE values were relatively low. Coefficient of determination and RMSE values indicate good accuracy and precision, respectively. Conclusion: Proposed method was successfully used for analysis of aceclofenac, paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in tablet dosage form and major impurities of aceclofenac, paracetamol in bulk.
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Evaluation of immunoglobulin G level among subjects vaccinated with different types of COVID-19 vaccines in the karbala population, Iraq p. 466
Rawaq Taleb Hassan, Suhad H Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_213_22  
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines represent the only way in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Studying the differences in immune response to different types of vaccines is considered an important tool for optimizing vaccine selection and dosage required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration following vaccination with Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccines. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2021 and April 2022. Methods: A blood sample was obtained from 174 vaccinated persons, IgG levels were detected using the SARS-COV-2 IgG II Quant assay on the ARCHITECT I system. Statistical analysis used IBM SPSS VERSION 24 software. Quantitative results are indicated as mean ± standard deviation. The statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Out of 60.3%, 33.9%, and 5.7% had received Pfizer, Sinopharm, and AstraZeneca vaccines, respectively. Ninety participants were men and 84 were women with ages ranging from 18 to 70 years. IgG concentrations were higher in participants vaccinated with Pfizer's vaccine. There were significant differences among the three types of vaccine within age groups. The mean IgG concentration was higher in male participants vaccinated with Pfizer and AstraZeneca. No significant variation was observed between the first and second doses for each type of the three vaccines. The IgG concentration for a vaccination with Pfizer varied significantly among the weeks after vaccination, the maximum concentration was seen between the 6th and 7th weeks. Conclusions: Participants vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine produce the highest antibody concentration as compared to other vaccines, especially in male participants. Younger participants produce higher amount of antibody response.
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