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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 126-131

Association with oral microbial alteration and oral disease among patients attending ruhengeri referral hospital, Rwanda: A case–control study

1 Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, INES Ruhengeri Institute of Applied Sciences, Musanze, Rwanda
2 Department of Midwifery and Gender, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
3 Department of Biology, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco
4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kenya

Correspondence Address:
Callixte Yadufashije
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, INES Ruhengeri Institute of Applied Sciences, Musanze
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_271_21

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Background: Dental disease remains a public health concern of this era. In 2020, World Health Organization reported that 3.5 billion of oral disease occurs every year. About 2.3 billion case is attributed to dental caries while gum disease affects 10% of the global population. Methods: This was a case control study carried out from November 2020 to February 2021. About 120 participants were recruited, of them, 60 were oral diseased, while the remaining 60 were selected as a control group. Oral swab samples were collected with the swab stick, and put into plastic sterile container to avoid external microbial contamination. Samples were transported to INES clinical microbiology laboratory for microbial identification. chi square was performed to test for association, while odd ratios and relative risk were performed to test for pathogenic microbial fraction. Results: The common oral diseases were tooth decay (56.6%) and gum disease (43.4%). the most affected age range was 5-19years (53.33%), while females (63.3%) were the most affected sex. The most isolated microorganism was Lactobacillus spp (15.8%) for patients, while Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%) was the most isolate in the control group. The statistical significant association with oral microbial alteration and oral disease was observed on Streptococcus mutans (x2=8.9, P= 0.002852), Lactobacillus spp (x2=9.84, P=0.001708), Candida spp (x2=5.2, P=0.02258), Staphylococcus aureus (x2 = 15.6, P= 0.000078), and Providencia spp (x2 = 6, P=0.014306). The overall oral microbial alteration (x2=53, P< 0.00001) was statistically significant. The ratio of pathogenic microorganisms (OR=4, 95%CI:2.3786-7.062 and RR=1.477, 95%CI:1.2478-1.7153) was significantly associated with oral disease. Conclusion: Oral microbial alteration contributes to oral disease. Early detection of oral microbial alteration, and oral diseases are recommended.

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