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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 380-388

Diabetic microvascular complications and proposed interventions and approaches of management for patient care

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istinye University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Girne American University, Mersin, Turkey
3 EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Digital Health and Care, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
4 Department of Pharmaceutics, Glocal School of Pharmacy, Glocal University, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Anmar Al-Taie
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istinye University, Istanbul
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_153_21

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Patients with diabetes mellitus are more likely to suffer microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic neuropathy, which, if undiagnosed or untreated, may have a debilitating effect on patients' quality of life and pose a substantial financial strain on health-care providers. Glycemic regulation and diabetes length are the most powerful risk factors; nevertheless, other modifiable risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, as well as unmodifiable risk factors, including age at onset of diabetes and genetic factors can all play a role. In addition to the involvement of potential risk factors, several links have been discovered between diabetic microvascular complications and one another, which seems to be significant associations for the development of these different microvascular complications. However, in order to help mitigate morbidity and mortality, considering the initiation and progression of all three complications as interconnected must be identified and managed at an early stage. Therefore, a variety of approaches to developing therapies to mitigate the negative effects of these complications are currently being studied in clinical trials which may contribute to potential long-term benefits in the management of different diabetic microvascular complications. This literature review summarizes the cellular and molecular pathways that lead to diabetic microvascular pathologies with emphasis on the clinical benefits of a variety of therapeutic approaches and insights into simple, comprehensive therapeutic interventions for clinical practice which could be optimal to reduce the risk and severity of different diabetic microvascular complications.

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