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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 166-169

Evaluation of contact-wear behavior of lithium disilicate glass ceramic materials; In vitro study

1 Department of Control Systems Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kilis 7 Aralık University, Kilis, Turkey
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum, Turkey

Date of Submission25-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance24-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication16-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Efe Çetin Yilmaz
Department of Control Systems Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kilis 7 Aralık University, Kilis
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_37_21

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Background: The purpose of this work is to evaluation of contact-wear behavior of lithium disilicate glass ceramic materials under in vitro chewing tests. Methods: Eight specimens of each ceramic materials were exposed contact-wear tests using a computer-controlled chewing simulator (1.2 Hz 50 N bite force loads, 120.000 mechanical cycles, constantly 37 °C temperature immersed in distill water. Al2O3 balls of 6 mm in diameter were used for each chewing test. The mean volume loss of all ceramic specimens after the contact-wear tests was determined with use 3D profilometer. In addition to a random specimen was selected from each test group and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were taken for analysis of wear tracks. Results: As a result, the ceramic materials tested in this study showed similar wear behaviors after 120.000 chewing tests. Conclusions: However, it was observed that more particles were carried on the wear surface and occurred micro cracks of the IPS e.max ceramic material. These micro cracks can be the continuation of cracks that occur subsurface of ceramic material.

Keywords: Ceramic material, chewing simulation, volume loss, wear

How to cite this article:
Yilmaz EÇ, Sadeler R. Evaluation of contact-wear behavior of lithium disilicate glass ceramic materials; In vitro study. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2021;5:166-9

How to cite this URL:
Yilmaz EÇ, Sadeler R. Evaluation of contact-wear behavior of lithium disilicate glass ceramic materials; In vitro study. Biomed Biotechnol Res J [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Oct 7];5:166-9. Available from: https://www.bmbtrj.org/text.asp?2021/5/2/166/318431

  Introduction Top

Human teethes play an important role in daily life, it is not necessary. They not only for chewing but also for correct pronunciation and facial esthetics. The emergence of partial lesions or complete loss of teeth requires the use of prosthetic materials to heal damaged/missing teeth to restore the comfort and functionality of natural human teeth.[1] As dental biomaterials, ceramic materials can be used a lot thanks to their unique properties such as biological compatibility, chemical integrity, mechanical resistance, and optical properties.[1] However, there are still concerns in the literature regarding the clinical performance of ceramic materials due to the corrosive effect of the hard oil on the counter material and the degradation of the complete structure.[2]

In recent years, all-ceramic restorations have attracted a lot of attention and it is predicted that this trend will continue due to the biocompatible and esthetic advantages of ceramic materials.[3],[4],[5] Increasing interest in clinical practice in this area is due to the development of durable dental ceramics with high strength and durability such as lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC) and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP).[5],[6] Classic Y-TZP is opaque and has the highest fracture resistance among dental ceramics, but does not match the natural tooth color.[7] In general, zirconia crowns must be coated with esthetic porcelain to improve aesthetic results.[5],[8] In literature based on the findings of fatigue, the hand-plated zircon crowns produced a high sensitivity to the cyclic loading of the mouth motion with premature venous failures, while computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing lithium disilicate ceramics resulted in fatigue-resistant crowns in a monolithic.[5],[9] In recent years, the development of biomaterials in terms of mechanics, chemistry, and esthetics has gradually increased the importance of laboratory experiments with the environment. Researchers have turned to in vitro experiments for reasons such as the length and cost of living tissue testing experiments. The ability to simulate the mechanical and chemical environment to which material on living tissue has been exposed for many years in the laboratory in a short period has gained great importance. Since the environment of living tissues has a continuous and complex structure, it is very difficult to imitate this environment. Consequently, the possibility of applying change parameters to living tissue in laboratory conditions will increase the reliability of test methods. Many researchers in the literature have developed a variety of laboratory in vitro testing methods.[10],[11],[12],[13] In these test methods, as a rule, the effect of a parameter on living tissue on various mechanical and chemical properties of a biomaterial was studied. For example, examining the wear resistance of dental biomaterials of the thermal exchange environment. The ability to simulate the variation parameter selected in the experimental. The fact that the mechanical force applied in the laboratory is the same as the force generated during chewing will increase the reliability of the test results. Based on data from clinical studies, it has been reported that the average human chewing force is approximately 20–120 N.[14] In vivo studies of living tissue samples, it was reported that during the chewing motion, the bite force was approximately 20 N in boiled potatoes, approximately 60 N in raw carrots, and approximately 120 N in cooked rice.[15] The influence of gender, physical and psychological behavior of people on chewing movements is an indisputable fact.[16] In the literature, preference is given to other values of mechanical force in chewing simulators with the ability to chew in laboratory conditions.[17],[18],[19],[20] Searching for literature; in many published scientific articles, it was noted that the load of 50 N was chosen as the chewing force.[10],[13],[21],[22],[23]

  Materials and Methods Top

Ceramic test pieces of rectangular shape were cut from the ceramic blocks using a low-speed water-cooled diamond saw (Isomet Buehler GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany) according to a chewing mechanism. The cut ceramic specimens were polished with silicon carbide abrasive paper. The cut out ceramic parts were then embedded in 12 mm × 2 mm cylindrical acrylic resin. LDGC materials tested in this study are shown in [Table 1]. (Information provided by the manufacturer company). [Table 1] shows mechanical and chemical properties of tested ceramic materials. For investigation to ceramic materials, the chewing simulator device capable of simulating the artificial mouth environment was designed and produced by the research group. Computer-controlled chewing simulator performed 1.2 Hz 50 N bite force loads, 120.000 mechanical cycles, constantly 37°C temperature immersed in distill water. Al2O3 balls of 6 mm in diameter were used for each chewing test. [Table 2] shows the mean wear volume loss of ceramic materials after chewing test procedures. The wear analysis of biomaterials is assessed using a variety of different methods, such as a contact or noncontact profilometer, digital microscope, optical sensor, and laser scanning. A literature study evaluated the volume and vertical loss variables using various methods such as a profilometer, optical transducer, and laser scanning.[14] As a result, it was found that the volumetric losses of the surface wear area both in the depth of wear and in the transverse axes are significantly related to each other. In this study, wear analysis was carried out using a 3D noncontact profilometer, and the wear areas in terms of wear depth and transverse axes were related to each other. The advantage of using this method was the analysis of the depth of wear and traces in the wear areas of the ceramic test specimens. Microanalysis was performed from the wear surfaces of the ceramic materials after the determined chewing test procedure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, mean wear volume loss and wear depth analyzes were performed after the chewing test procedure of ceramic materials using noncontact 3D profilometer. In this study obtained data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS Statics 20.0 for Windows 64 bit; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). [Table 3] example of one-way analysis of variance analyses on ceramic materials.
Table 1: Ceramic materials in this study scope tested

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Table 2: The mechanical behavior of ceramic materials in this study

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Table 3: Example of one-way ANOVA analyses on ceramic materials

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  Results Top

In this study tested of ceramic materials showed similar wear behaviors after 120.000 wear cycles of direct-contact two-body wear chewing mechanisms [Table 1]. IPS Empress CAD ceramic material has a harder structure than IPS e.max CAD ceramic material. IPS Empress CAD ceramic material has a harder structure, which contributes to less volume loss after chewing test. [Figure 1] shows example of the impact wear of the IPS Empress CAD ceramic material caused with biting force (vertical loading) during chewing movement mechanisms. The hard surface of the ceramic materials has contributed to the plastic deformation behavior on the surface of the material in direct contact movement. [Figure 2] shows example of noncontact 3D profilometer mean wear volume loss and wear surface analyses on ceramic materials.
Figure 1: Example of the impact wear of the IPS Empress computer-aided design ceramic material caused with biting force (vertical loading) during chewing movement mechanisms

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Figure 2: Example of noncontact 3D profilometer mean wear volume loss and wear surface analyses on ceramic materials

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  Discussion Top

The comparison of the two ceramic materials showed that the movement of particles on the wear surface of the IPS e.max CAD ceramic is more pronounced than that of the IPS Empress CAD ceramic. As a result, the IPS e.max CAD ceramic material may exhibit less elastic properties under vertical loading and depending on this, may result in more pronounced impact wear. Recent studies in the literature have shown that the wear of ceramic materials in an oral tribology environment is significantly influenced by the properties of the ceramic material, such as surface roughness, microstructure porosity, and crystal structure. When testing wear mechanisms, it is difficult to find a correlation between hardness and wear resistance due to the hard structure of ceramic materials and the rapid development of subsurface cracks. When constant and variable loads are taken into account in intraoral tribology during chewing, subsurface cracks in the wear mechanisms of ceramic materials are inevitable. Subsurface cracks in ceramic materials are indicative of fatigue wear, which is actually caused by repetitive loading. In the literature, they reported that micro-cracks in the wear mechanisms of composite materials during chewing tests, and that this phenomenon occurred as a sign of a fatigue wear mechanism.[24],[25] In vitro simulation of human chewing movement in a laboratory environment is a very complex and continuous process. The validity of the parameters chosen in the laboratory is to the extent that it can model the situation occurring on living tissue. For example, the mechanical and chemical behavior of the antagonist abrasive material can have a major influence on the wear behavior of the test specimen. In the literature search, there was no agreement found that any antagonist material should be used for chewing simulation tests performed in the laboratory environment. Considering the fact that abrasion occurs between at least two surfaces and the volume loss that occurs in the materials, it will be proved that the mechanical, chemical, and esthetic behavior of the counter material can have a significant effect on wear mechanisms. For this reason, knowing the mechanical, chemical, and esthetic behavior of the counter material selected during the chewing test experiments in the laboratory environment will have great importance on the consistency of the results. In the literature, steatite, a synthetic material consisting of magnesium silicate, was proposed as counter material in OHSU and ZURICH chewing test methods performed in the laboratory environment.[26] Substitution of enamel as antagonist can reduce the variability of test results due to uniform shape and limited variation in material properties. Other advantages worth considering are the shortened time required for the production of the antagonist. Furthermore, the limited availability of extracted teeth makes it more attractive to use a synthetic material for in vitro abrasion testing. It has recently been reported that Empress ceramic antagonists produce similar.[26] Therefore, the selection of the test method and parameters in the laboratory environment is very important through chewing simulation test procedures.

  Conclusion Top

Within the limits of the current laboratory work, the following conclusion can be drawn;

  • Ceramic materials exhibited similar wear behavior after 120,000 impact-wear chewing tests mechanisms
  • In chewing cycle test tests of ceramic materials, both IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max ceramic materials play a role in the transport of particles from the ceramic surface during lateral movement during the chewing movement. Comparisons between the two ceramic materials show that the particle movement is more pronounced on the IPS e.max CAD ceramic material wear surface than on the IPS Empress CAD ceramic material. As a result, it has been interpreted that the IPS e.max CAD ceramic material has less elastic behavior during vertical loading and a more specific impact wear area is formed depending on this situation
  • In the chewing cycle test of ceramic materials, IPS e.max CAD and IPS Empress CAD ceramics showed similar wear behavior. This is because the chemical composition of both ceramic materials is close to each other. However, in both ceramic materials, sub-surface cracks were observed in the wear areas in the microstructure images taken from SEM This has been interpreted as a sign of fatigue wear and damage to ceramic materials is anticipated in ongoing chewing tests. As a solution to this situation, it is thought that by making some changes in the micro internal structure of the ceramic mvaterial and various surface treatments, the elastic behavior of the ceramic material can be improved, and thus, the ceramic material can show better wear resistance against mechanical effects. Loads during the chewing motion.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

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Note: This study has been extended and revised after been presented in International Conference on Multidisciplinary, Engineering, Science, Education and Technology (IMESETf18 Dubai, UAE) Hosted by Murdoch Dubai University October 25.27, 2018, Dubai, UAE (Grand excelsior Hotel Bur Dubai) It was previously published as full text report in the Book of the conference.


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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