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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 203-207

High C-reactive proteins levels, rheumatoid anemia, alpha-1 globulin deficiency, and hypergammaglobulinemia in rheumatoid arthritis patients from yaounde, Cameroon

1 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
2 Center for Study and Control of Communicable Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaounde, Cameroon
3 Department of Military Health, Military Health Research Center, Yaounde, Cameroon
4 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
5 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
6 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon

Correspondence Address:
Christopher Tume
Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, PO Box 1114 Yaounde
Etienne Philemon Atabonkeng
Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_91_18

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoantibodies-mediated disease affecting 0.5%–1% of the population worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate variations of protein profiles and hematological parameters of patients in Yaounde Central Hospital. Methods: The study was conducted from January to November 2017. RA cases were recruited based on the identification of established diagnosis from registers of patients of participating rheumatologists. Healthy volunteers visiting the hospital were also included as a control population. All participants were aged 15 years and above. Whole blood collected from each participant was assayed for hematological parameters. In addition, serum from each participant was assayed for the level of C-reactive proteins (CRPs) using a plate agglutination technique whereas plasma was used for protein profile through a conventional electrophoretic migration of proteins on cellulose acetate gel. Results: Overall, 22 RA patients and 10 controls were recruited and consisted, respectively, in 5 males and 17 females and 2 males and 8 females. Our study revealed that 59.09% (13/22) of patients presented high levels of CRP compared to 10% in the control group. The mean value of red blood cells was 4.38 × 106/μl and 4.698 × 106/μl, respectively, in the RA and the control groups. The mean hemoglobin value was significantly reduced in the RA group (11.07 mg/dl vs. 12.73 mg/dl, P = 0.0192), thus revealing anemia in patients. Nearly 54.5% of patients presented hypoalbuminemia compared to 20% in the control group (P = 0, 1241). A deficiency of α1-globulin was observed in 54.5% of patients while that of control group was 30%. Furthermore, 72% of the patient presented hypergammaglobulinemia compared to 30% in the control group (P = 0.0494). Conclusion: This study revealed that RA patients present a normochromic and normocytic anemia, a decreased albumin and alpha 1 globulin, a significant elevation of gamma-globulins compared to the control population.

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