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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 157-162

High rates of human immunodeficiency virus and drug resistance in tuberculosis patients in Manila, Philippines

1 PMDT Treatment Center, San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Philippines
2 Graduate School of Health Science Studies, School of Health Science and Social Welfare, Kibi International University, Okayama, Japan
3 National Reference Laboratory for HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, and other STDs, STD/AIDS Cooperative Central Laboratory, Manila, Philippines
4 National TB Program, Manila, Philippines
5 Center for Infectious Disease Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands

Correspondence Address:
Toshio Hattori
Graduate School of Health Science Studies, School of Health Science and Social Welfare, Kibi International University, Okayama
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_72_17

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Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Philippines is 288/100,000 populations (2014), wherein 2% of new cases and 21% of retreatment cases are multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). In addition, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been alarmingly over the past 7 years in the subpopulation of men who have sex with men in the Philippines. In June 2016, there were 841 new HIV-seropositive individuals reported to the HIV/AIDS and Antiretroviral Therapy Registry of the Philippines. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MDR-TB patients in a Manila hospital from 2011 to 2015. Methods: TB patients who referred to the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (2012 to 2015) were tested for MDR-TB (using Xpert MTB/RIF assay) and HIV infection. In addition, the available data that belong to patients before the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay were included. Results: A total of 4515 presumptive drug-resistant TB patients were screened (2012–2015) to determine the percentage of MDR-TB cases: 16% (2012), 14% (2013), and 11% (2014 and 2015). Among the MDR-TB patients, the percentage of HIV-positive cases increased yearly: 0.5% (2011), 3% (2012), 5% (2013), 9% (2014), and 15% (2015). The high mortality rate ranged from 42% to 66%. The cure rate among the enrolled MDR-TB cases was 47% in 2012, which increased from 27% in 2011, but it did not improve thereafter (46% in 2013 and 51% in 2014). Conclusion: A remarkable increase in the prevalence of HIV among MDR-TB patients was found. The raises are alarming and need urgent attention on different risk factors and/or living style of patients.

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